Low-maintenance subtropical green roofs. Spontaneous vegetation and substrate deph
Spontaneous and ruderal plants can be the key to a low-cost, low-maintenance urban Green Infrastructure that can adapt to the local climate context. In addition to providing a wide range of Ecosystem Services, such species can survive in environments altered by humans and withstand conditions adverse to them, such as water scarcity and shallow substrate. The paper aims to systematically identify the effects exerted by substrate depth during the first months of vegetation growth using the Point-Intercept method in low-maintenance extensive green roofs. Contrary to previous research focusing on vegetation growth in temperate climates, experimentation in a humid subtropical climate can help to fill a gap by assessing the long-term potential of roofs with heterogeneous spontaneous species establishment to improve urban ecology and its natural regeneration.
Alvares, C. A., Stape, J. L., Sentelhas, P. C., de Moraes Gonçalves, J. L. and Sparovek, G. (2014), “Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil”, in Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 22, n. 6, pp. 711-728. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Ampim, P. A. Y., Sloan, J. J., Cabrera, R. I., Harp, D. A. and Jaber, F. H. (2010), “Green Roof Growing Substrates – Types, Ingredients, Composition and Properties”, in Journal of Environmental Horticulture, vol. 28, issue 4, pp. 244-252. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-28.4.244 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Caratti, J. (2006), Point Intercept (PO) – Sampling Method, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-164-CD. [Online] Available at: fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr164/rmrs_gtr164_09_point_inter.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Catalano, C., Laudicina, V. A., Badalucco, L. and Guarino, R. (2018), “Some European green roof norms and guidelines through the lens of biodiversity – Do ecoregions and plant traits also matter?”, in Ecological Engineering, vol. 115, pp. 15-26. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.01.006 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Catalano, C., Marcenò, C., Laudicina, V. A. and Guarino, R. (2016), “Thirty years unmanaged green roofs – Ecological research and design implications”, in Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 149, pp. 11-19. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.01.003 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Chojnacky, C. D. and Milton, M. (2008), “Measuring Carbon in Shrubs”, in Hoover, C. M. (ed.), Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring – A Landscape-Scale Approach, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 45-72. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8506-2_5 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Cianciaruso, M. V., Pires, J. S. R., Delitti, W. B. C. and Silva, E. F. L. P. (2006), “Litter fall and leaf decomposition in cerradão Jataí Reserve, municipality of Luiz Antônio, São Paulo State, Brazil”, in Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 49-59. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000100006 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Dunnett, N. (2015), “Ruderal Green Roofs”, in Sutton, R. K. (ed.), Green Roof Ecosystems, Ecological Studies, vol. 223, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 223-255. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14983-7 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Dunnett, N., Nagase, A. and Hallam, A. (2008), “The dynamics of planted and colonising species on a green roof over six growing seasons 2001-2006 – Influence of substrate depth”, in Urban Ecosystem, vol. 11, pp. 373-384. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/s11252-007-0042-7 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
European Commission (2015), Towards an EU Research and Innovation Policy Agenda for Nature-based Solutions & Re-naturing Cities. [Online] Available at: op.europa.eu/it/publication-detail/-/publication/fb117980-d5aa-46df-8edc-af367cddc202 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Gobatti, L., Leite, B. C. C. and Huttenlocher, I. G. (2022), Unmanaged tropical green roof spontaneous vegetation dynamics – Effects of substrate depth, Mendeley Data, V2. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.17632/36cp9kzsrf.2 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Grullón-Penkova, I. F., Zimmerman, J. K. and González, G. (2020), “Green roofs in the tropics – Design considerations and vegetation dynamics”, in Heliyon, vol. 6, issue 8, e04712, pp. 1-8. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04712 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Lacerda, D. P., Dresch, A., Proença, A. and Antunes Júnior, J. A. V. (2013), “Design Science Research – A research method to production engineering”, in Gestão & Produção, vol. 20, issue 4, pp. 741-761. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1590/S0104-530X2013005000014 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Lundholm, J. T. (2015), “Spontaneous dynamics and wild design in green roofs”, in Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution, vol. 62, issue 1-2, pp. 21-31. [Online] Available at: dx.doi.org/10.1080/15659801.2015.1025511 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Martinelli, M. (2010), “Clima do Estado de São Paulo”, in Confins, n. 8. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4000/confins.6348 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
MEA – Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), Ecosystems and Human Well-being – Synthesis, Island Press, Washington (DC). [Online] Available at: millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. (2002), Aims and methods of vegetation ecology, The Blackburn Press, Caldwell.
Nagase, A., Dunnett, N. and Choi, M.-S. (2013), “Investigation of weed phenology in an establishing semi-extensive green roof”, in Ecological Engineering, vol. 58, pp. 156-164. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.06.007 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Oberndorfer, E., Lundholm, J., Bass, B., Coffman, R. R., Doshi, H., Dunnett, N., Gaffin, S., Köhler, M., Liu, K. K. Y. and Rowe, B. (2007), “Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems – Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services”, in BioScience, vol. 57, issue 10, pp. 823-833. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1641/B571005 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Oliveira, D. S., Rodrigues, D. S. and Oliveira Jr., C. J. F. (2021), “Telhados verdes – Uma proposta para o uso com espécies nativas do Brasil | Green roofs – A proposal for use native species in Brazil”, in Mix Sustentável, vol. 7, n. 3, pp. 111-126. [Online] Available at ojs.sites.ufsc.br/index.php/mixsustentavel/article/download/4593/3679 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Osmundson, T. (1999), Roof Gardens – History, Design and Construction, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.
Silva, C. M., Flores-Colen, I. and Antunes, M. (2017), “Step-by-step approach to ranking green roof retrofit potential in urban areas – A case study of Lisbon, Portugal”, in Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 25, pp. 120-129. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.04.018 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Vesuviano, G. and Stovin, V. (2013), “A generic hydrological model for a green roof drainage layer”, in Water Science & Technology, vol. 68, issue 4, pp. 769-775. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.2166/wst.2013.294 [Accessed 15 March 2022].
Copyright (c) 2022 Brenda Chaves Coelho Leite, Lucas Gobatti, Isabela Gamba Huttenlocher
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This Journal is published under Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC-BY).
License scheme | Legal code
This License allows anyone to:
Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms
Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.
No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.