AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span> International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (Product and Visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the AGATHÓN includes essays, research and experimentation on a specific theme, unpublished works and not for publication with other publishers. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of international community. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality and relevance of the contributions, the rigour of the methodology, but also the easy access and wide dissemination of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features. To select the articles to be published, AGATHÓN adopts the double-blind peer review process.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles will be inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or Experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and will be classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contribution <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer review process.</p> Palermo University Press – New Digital Frontiers Srl (Publisher) | DEMETRA Ce.Ri.Med. (Promoter) en-US AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design 2464-9309 <p>This Journal is published under&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0</a>&nbsp;(CC-BY).<br><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src=""></a><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">License scheme</a>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Legal code</a><br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This License allows anyone to</span>:<br>Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.<br>Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Under the following terms</span><br>Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.<br>No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Notices</span><br>Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.<br>No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.</p> Index | Colophon | Editorial Giuseppe De Giovanni Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 3 4 Features and critical issues of process innovations <p>‘Process’ innovations – inclusive (but not substitutive) of similar ‘product’ evolutions (and further factors with which unravel activities of architecture’s production and management) – represent as many ‘countermeasures’ to the challenges posed by the current ‘complexity’s’ that characterize the construction industry. Some features, background and critical issues are outlined.</p> Giorgio Giallocosta Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 5 10 10.19229/2464-9309/512019 Designerly Way of Organizing. The Design of Creative Organization <p>In recent years, the Design has expanded its ‘design objects’ to include organization. Specifically, it is within the debate on Design Thinking that this interest emerges, in one of the typologies that characterize it: Creative Confidence. The creative dimension is functional with regard to involving the members of an organization; it allows to overcome the resistance to change and it enables the risk that every creative process entails. The aim is to innovate products and services through greater availability and acceptance, enabled by careful leadership, towards creativity. Design is a creative expression, yet, like creativity itself, it requires the creation and absorption of cultural codes and models; the assumption, in summary, of a ‘design culture’.</p> Francesco Zurlo Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 11 20 10.19229/2464-9309/522019 Process, Project and Architecture <p>The concept of systematization is an innovative approach to the project that introduces a system of order with a method that proceeds by aggregating repeatable parts and regulates the phases of the design process. These principles can be found in the theories and experiments that lead to contemporary architecture, such as seriality, standardization, modularity that transform the project into a process and determine a new aesthetic. The works of the Fran Silvestre Arquitectos studio represent interesting examples that highlight the clarity of the process that operates through seriality and the definition of configurations based on dimensional relationships rather than on scale factors (as inherent in the concept of type) from which coherent structural and spatial solutions derive.</p> Paolo De Marco Antonino Margagliotta Fran Silvestre Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 21 30 10.19229/2464-9309/532019 Computational Intelligences in the post-Environmental Design. Examples from MAILB <p>The article addresses the environmental question by critiquing the anthropocentric vision, still alive in the design debate and practice, as a remnant of the underlying dualism humanity/environment. It opposes the co-evolutionist and New Realism theses re-elaborated in the light of a new metalanguage (Digital Mathema) capable of ‘giving voice’ to the multitude of agents and to activate forms of collaborative intelligence (Computational Intelligences), enabling design explorations beyond established norms and the already known. Following is a description of Parametric and Generative Design and the Mailab research laboratory’s experiences. The conclusion is an invitation to reflect on the possible side effects that could arise from digital marking and from an excessive emphasis on the ‘know-how’.</p> Giuseppe Ridolfi Arman Saberi Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 31 40 10.19229/2464-9309/542019 BIM Technology and Material Innovation. The Environmental Dimension <p>The considerations reported in the following paper take inspiration from interdisciplinary research carried out by authors and relative to the application of BIM technology for the management of the building process. In this regard, the research focuses on the role that this computer technology has in the choice and assessment of the use of different materials while considering their performance in the whole life cycle of the building. In particular, the present work summarizes the role that BIM technology has in the control of the environmental dimension of natural matrix innovative building materials. This evaluation is pursued through the processing of a set of criteria able to describe the quality of a given material especially in terms of compatibility.</p> Rossella Franchino Caterina Frettoloso Nicola Pisacane Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 41 50 10.19229/2464-9309/552019 BIM and Collaborative Practices. Expertise and Skills from the Digital Environment <p>The digital management of the construction process is required for sustainability. It imposes the definition of new roles and responsibilities and – consequently – makes it necessary to introduce new professional figures that are able to perform specific organizational and management tasks and functions in the scope of BIM process management. The contribution offers food for thought on the transversal and digital skills (soft skills) required by these professional figures on the basis of a critical analysis of examples reported in the literature, experiences and changes triggered by the adoption of the BIM methodology with respect to new activities, knowledge, skills, roles and responsibilities related to the professional figure.</p> Maria Antonietta Esposito Alessandra Donato Filippo Bosi Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 51 58 10.19229/2464-9309/562019 Natural Material Innovation. Earth and Halloysite Nanoclay for a sustainable challange <p>Within the cultural debate that considers the environmental issue as a priority and with reference to the studies and researches that over the last years have supported compound materials containing rammed earth, the Authors, aware of the need of giving to the relationship of Project and Matter a key role, supported by the characteristics of Architectural Technology, show the results of an experimentation that aims to improve the performance of rammed earth with the contribution of nanotechnologies, developing a ‘new material’ with a reduced embodied energy and a reduced amount of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions into the atmosphere.</p> Cesare Sposito Francesca Scalisi Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 59 72 10.19229/2464-9309/572019 Building with Plastic. A New Possible Solution for the Environment <p>The research concerns a possible way for recycling plastic bottles as construction material, as an additional reuse circuit. Following a preliminary critical analysis of case studies to highlight the possible design variables, an innovative method which uses plastic bottles for the construction of load-bearing walls is proposed. Models of different constructive solutions have been designed and built, up to the proposal of a module of four bottles, filled with sand and tied together. Laboratory compression tests have shown the strength of the basic module and a f.e.m. analysis has demonstrated the stability of the structure. These first results encourage to other more accurate analysis and testify its potential versatility as building material and exportability of use even in different contexts, at a social, economic and environmental level.</p> Daniela Besana Claudia Ferrari Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 73 82 10.19229/2464-9309/582019 The Design Process towards Resource Productivity. A Case Study <p>The transition to a circular economy, applied as a priority to the built environment, is recognized in the most recent EU guidelines as a promising approach to increase resource productivity. In Italy, a powerful lever is represented by the mandatory application of the Minimum Environmental Criteria within Green Public Procurement which, in construction (Ministerial Decree 11/10/2017), concern the totality of the contracts. The paper describes one of the first complete implementations of these Criteria, considering the innovation in the design process from a life cycle perspective, which is reflected in particular in the methods of selection and procurement of natural and eco-friendly materials, with recycled content and certificated products, as well as in the design for disassembly of building components.</p> Serena Baiani Paola Altamura Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 83 92 10.19229/2464-9309/592019 Building Industrialization and Prefabrication between Materiality and Immateriality <p>This paper aims to investigate the possibilities offered by the design and production paradigms of Industry 4.0 in the Architecture, Engineering &amp; Construction industry, through the coordination between systems for the integrated management of the design process (Building Information Modeling) and rapid prototyping tools (Computer-Aided Manufacturing). Is hereby proposed an interpretation of the meaning that an industrial transformation of the AEC industry takes over for the Architectural design, simulating a methodology in a BIM environment for the design of residential buildings in Cold-Formed Steel with drywall envelopes, exploiting the potential of digital manufacturing and computational design advanced tools.</p> Sergio Russo Ermolli Giuliano Galluccio Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 93 100 10.19229/2464-9309/5102019 Digital Processes for the Redevelopment of Social Housing in Plattenbau <p>As part of a framework agreement between the DiARC of the ‘Federico II’ University of Naples and the Fakultät Bauwesen of the HTWK Leipzig, which led to a collaboration with the LWB – the public housing manager of the city of Leipzig which for years has implemented a policy of redevelopment and management of the Plattenbauten housing heritage carried out after the war – an experimental research is underway for developing process innovations related to documentation, redevelopment and management of social housing. The goal is to propose, through digital and computational technologies, smart design solutions that make this heritage responsive to increasingly changing and indeterminate contexts and encourage new interactions between stakeholders involved in the different stages of the process.</p> Marina Block Massimo Perriccioli Monica Rossi-Schwarzenbeck Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 101 108 10.19229/2464-9309/5112019 Machine Learning and Safe and Inclusive Architecture for Fragile Users <p>The contribution presents the first results of a research conducted in the Department of Architecture, Roma Tre University, aimed at testing Machine Learning algorithms for train Neural Networks in learning data from BIM, with the purpose of generating Augmented Reality contents. The objective is to improve the living space's fruition by fragile users. Machine Learning algorithms, in computer-aided design, constitute an innovation in production, as well as an innovation in product, meaning architectural spaces as such. After describing the current research lines, this paper proposes a shared glossary about the terms borrowed from other investigation fields. Finally, it describes the applications in Augmented Reality experimented in the research and the theoretical mechanisms of interaction between these and the Machine Learning algorithms.</p> Antonio Magarò Adolfo F. L. Baratta Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 109 116 10.19229/2464-9309/5122019 Open Source Data and Strategic Project for Resilient City <p>This contribution explores the role of information technology, relating to the representation and processing of data in open source and crowd-sourced format, for the purpose of urban planning and design process. In the research field, an experimental analysis is carried out within the Genoese neighborhood of Molassana by comparing and processing, in a single system, the traditional cartography provided by the online portals of the public administration and the data shared by users on social networks and open source platforms. The complexity of the information obtained grows a synthetic multi-layer territorial strategy, strongly linked to the local and social context.</p> Cristina Càndito Manuel Gausa Matilde Pitanti Giulia Sola Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 117 126 10.19229/2464-9309/5132019 Design Innovation Typologies. A critical Analysis of a Complex Relationship <p>In the literature, many types of product innovation are described. In this article, we analyze the three design-related innovation typologies that seem most discussed and agreed upon: i) aesthetic innovation; ii) innovation of use; iii) meaning innovation. While allowing overlaps and complementarities, each typology focuses on a specific aspect of a product’s innovation. Over time, such specificities prevented the formulation of an integrated theoretical model able to connect them together and express logical and functional relations among them. In this article – through a systematic analysis of the literature of the last 30 years – we aim to identify a theoretical model that underlines the specific drivers of any innovation typology, at the same time composing them in a coherent framework in which some are considered logical and instrumental antecedents with respect to higher level of innovation.</p> Cabirio Cautela Lucia Rampino Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 127 136 10.19229/2464-9309/5142019 Universal Typeface. Innovation without Style <p>The Bauhaus (1919-1933) has marked history. This school was animated by some of the most significant Twentieth-century artist-designers, from Gropius to Kandinskij, from Itten to Moholy-Nagy, not related to an unambiguous approach. However, the idea of the Bauhaus, which innervated the debate and the practice of the project in Europe and in the USA (and beyond) for decades, has resulted into some kind of International Style which, in typography, corresponds to the Universal typeface of Herbert Bayer (1925). This article aims to highlight how the universal typeface, that today represents the ‘style’ of Modernity, was in the beginning innovation in its purest: a configuration aimed at effect, to achieve maximum result with minimum effort, both from an economic and technical-productive, and from a functional point of view, readability and visual perception; and how the most interesting aspect is not the form itself – re-proposed, equal to itself, for almost a century – but its underlying design principle.</p> Dario Russo Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 137 144 10.19229/2464-9309/5152019 Hardesign vs Softdesign <p>Our thought on innovation starts from the dichotomy between the strong and the light design’s components: on the one hand opposed, on the other complementary. Hard is the process based on the consumerist model, Soft is more sustainable. Hard is the dimension of possession, Soft is that of access and sharing. Hard is the top-down process and Soft is the bottom-up process that values social innovation. The project tools are not records to be applied. They must adapt, be customized to the needs expressed by the people who are activating themselves in the structuring of answers. The role of designers today is to face our time challenges, to which the models used in the last century are unable to respond. It is to answer to the world’s change by performing the change in the project.</p> Raffaella Fagnoni Chiara Olivastri Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 145 152 10.19229/2464-9309/5162019 High-Performance Concrete. Innovation and Supply Chain for Public Art and Urban Furniture <p>The current availability of UHPC (Ultra-High-Performance Concrete) concrete mixes with an adaptive and multi-performance behaviour has transformed the concept of ‘matter’ itself, allowing the construction of complex shapes and designs, and boosting the use of the compound in different sectors, thus opening new design paths following the concept of ‘non-standard’ in advanced neo-handicraft production processes. The results of technology research on the concrete compounds are analyzed in terms of how they have offered a type of mix that allows an expansion of the creative and ‘on-demand’ manufacturing process for self-supporting urban furniture and public art elements. The results and outlook of the supply chains are outlined in terms of performance, adjustment to standards, costs, network-building, and new market.</p> Rossella Maspoli Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 153 160 10.19229/2464-9309/5172019 Co-Design for Rebranding an Italian Foundation <p>This paper is based on research conducted by Creative Industries Lab of Politecnico di Milano for creating the new brand image and communication strategy for Fondazione Cariplo. A Co-Design approach has involved both internal and external stakeholders in visually defining a shared future identity for rebranding this significant foundation to the public. The research results have revealed that the co-creation process has not only generated the expected objectives, but also raised a cultural change towards innovation inside the organization itself. Therefore, this experience has opened a new research realm for applying design methods and tools in organizations.</p> Xue Pei Francesco Zurlo Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 161 166 10.19229/2464-9309/5182019 Participative Urban Air Quality Monitoring Using Open Source Devices <p>Air pollution negatively affects the life quality of billions of people living in urban areas. Current monitoring systems provide accurate data but this is distributed on large-scale grids. It is therefore difficult for citizens and institutions to be fully aware of the air quality in their area. The article presents an interdisciplinary research group’s experimentation, aimed at creating a compact, economic, and easily reproducible device capable of measuring pollutants and reporting them in real-time on a detailed, free-access map. The openness of the code and the versatility of the product are the keys to its replicability and for tackling air pollution with a participatory approach.</p> Maurizio Vrenna Matthieu Crétier Simon Nelson Landén Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 167 174 10.19229/2464-9309/5192019 MERLINO. Virtual Reality for Stimulation of Neuro-cognitive Processes <p>This research investigates studies on multi-sensory environments (MSEs) and, comparing existing solutions on the market, offers an integrated product-service, designed to contain costs, from an industrial manufacturing perspective, with a high level of flexibility, aimed at children with intellectual and motor disabilities. Based on the studies developed by the LudoMi team, a project awarded at Polisocial Award 2017, as acknowledgment on research with a high social impact relevant for the scientific community. We report the case study of Merlino: research project, in progress, with the Design Department of the Polytechnic of Milan, which aims to increase the development of cognitive faculties and motor skills, promoting learning and improvement of communication and relational skills.</p> Mario Bisson Shanti Andreana Alberti di Catenajo Stefania Palmieri Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 175 182 10.19229/2464-9309/5202019 RESTONED. From Waste Material to Sustainable Stone <p>The ReSTONED research investigates the theme of environmental sustainability related to the production cycle, starting with the reuse of the stone waste material, to be transformed into new material for indoor and outdoor products. The research is based on the product innovation field, with particular reference to materials from natural sources and furniture. With a view to strengthening the regional circular economy, the research hypothesis is that the production waste, defined as ‘processing mud’, can be re-processed in order to obtain new material with renewed characteristics both from a technical and an aesthetic point of view.</p> Annalisa Di Roma Alessandra Scarcelli Vincenzo Minenna Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 5 183 190 10.19229/2464-9309/5212019