AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design 2021-02-10T07:35:49+00:00 Prof. Arch. Cesare Sposito Open Journal Systems <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span>&nbsp;Scientific International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (product and visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the Journal includes essays and research works on a specific theme, unpublished works and not submitted for publication with other publishers.<br>The Journal through its internal Board promotes and monitors the double-blind peer review process as a method of selecting articles, providing a mandatory form for reporting. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of international scientific community. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality/innovation, the relevance of the investigated topic for the advancement of knowledge, the knowledge and ability to use literature, the methodological rigour, the content clarity and presentation style, the impact on the scientific community, but also the easy accessibility and the wide diffusion of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles are inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and are classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p>AGATHÓN publishes, both electronically and in print, two issues per year, in June and December. The first issue was published in June 2017 and since then the programmed issues have been produced regularly.</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contribution <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer-review process.</p> Index | Colophon | Editorial 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Fabrizio Tucci 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Towards a cyber ecology 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Carlo Ratti Daniele Belleri <p>This essay traces how designers are facilitating an extraordinary, double convergence between the natural and artificial worlds. After centuries of conflict, the reality of the Anthropocene and the urgency of climate change demand that we work at the intersection of our environment and our creations. Additionally, the birth of digital technologies and the Internet of Things could give us the tools to manage this interface. The first side of the coin – making the natural world into an artificially-enhanced ‘cyborg’ – has already gained momentum and cultural purchase. The other path – animating the artificial world to make it work in harmony with nature and living things – is a place where we have only just begun to take our first steps. In the design practice CRA – Carlo Ratti Associati’s firsthand work with exhibitions and experiments across the globe, often developed in collaboration with Italo Rota, we have explored two main strategies: animating the artificial with distributed computing or literally incorporating natural elements in design. Our theories are coming from our daily practice, which in turn demands new political, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks to understand the task before us.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) On flexible and green design. Perspectives and personal reflections 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Lavinia Herzog Thomas Herzog <p>The majority of humanity will live in megacities in the future. The world’s major cities recognise the connection between quality of life and green spaces. Green facades affect many parameters of a building, but human ‘biophilia’ is currently rarely a planning goal. While the effects of vegetation on the building climate can be of great importance, the potential sensory impact on the person inside needs to be taken into consideration as a subsystem in the buildings of the future. Architecture deals with the spirit of a place and with artefacts that relate to it. A characteristic of this is thinking in the different levels of the subsystems, cycles and time phases. Considering changes in the use and function of the built space while focusing on sustainable construction and renewable energies creates the chance of a performance-form of a performance-form of a specific architectural quality.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Shamballa, Heaven can wait. How 3D printing will sustain the future 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Dario Russo Massimo Moretti <p>This article is devoted to the activities of the WASP group of which Massimo Moretti is the founder, and emphasizes how it is possible to reconcile technological progress with the creation of a heaven on earth: a society of equals, eco-compatible, scientifically evolved and completely open-source. This is not utopia. It is actually taking place thanks to projects that respond in concrete fashion to the basic needs of Man: food, home, health, energy, work and culture. The case of WASP is a pointer to changes that are occurring. An accumulation of futuristic technology geared towards a social application. It is also a clear demonstration of how an ethical vision is actually practicable within the logic of the business community. Moreover, it is the demonstration of how an ethical vision may become the driving force in developing projects and technologically advanced machines, which are then sold to feed the dream: to build heaven on earth.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Hypothesis of regeneration by 'anticipation' in the cities of Ouagadougou and Lomé 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Patrick Thépot <p>The studies carried out within the Master’s programme Aedification – Grands Territoires – Villes of the École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Grenoble for the cities of Ouagadougou and Lomé, each in their own way, question the dynamic processes of the architecture project as vectors of transformations in relation to space and time. To do this, these processes call for ‘‘anticipation’’ to foresee the future of one of the largest informal districts in the city of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso and a former wasteland in the city of Lomé in Togo by progressively proposing new spatial qualities to these urban sites, that are often considered only negatively by the institutions. Taking into account their specific environment and starting from a multi-scalar vision in time and space, these two hypotheses of projects are intended to be innovative in their way of considering the future, for which the temporal framework of thought must be of at least fifteen years.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Heritages in progress. Designing their regeneration 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Françoise Blanc <p><span lang="EN-GB">To design with Heritage for the future within the complexity of its scales and its contemporary stakes opens an innovating field. The idea of ‘regeneration’ becomes a drive for project at all scales. The examination of this notion allows the introduction to the discourse, which is developed afterwards with the exposure of two meaningful experiments: they propose the current and future regeneration of Heritage within its large space context and open a new conceptual frame for the project. The case of Mont Saint Michel in France, a realized pilot project and the internationally collaborated academic works on the water supplies Heritage and the metropolitan sprawl in the territory of Jaipur-Amber, Rajasthan, illustrate the contribution to a founding reflection on the becoming of Heritages, seen as a renewable resource and innovative carrier.</span></p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Design strategies for urban and building adaptation in environmental multi-risk scenarios 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Mario Losasso Sara Verde <p>The recent pandemic crisis has highlighted the widespread condition of ‘polycrysis’ in which the impacts of climate change, air pollution, and health risks coincide. This leads to a vulnerability of urban systems that threaten lifestyles, economies, and the survival of individuals. To coexist with such scenarios that will characterize the near future, multiple environmental adaptation actions are necessary to counteract impacts and damage to the urban and building scale. The contribution proposes an analysis of the evolution of possible scenarios and strategies for environmental adaptation as a response to impacts. It prefigures project actions aimed at reducing the damage resulting from the current condition of overlapping risks, identifying in the crisis new opportunities for an ecological transition of urban districts as a long-term goal for sustainable development.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Cities and environmental emergencies. Green Infrastructures for the urban project 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Federica Dell'Acqua <p><span lang="EN-GB">The interaction between climatic phenomena, pathogenic states, and environmental conditions require thinking about the origin of environmental threats as result of altered man-nature relationship. Environmental emergencies become part of everyday life and prelude to new conditions of normality. The paper, with an analytical and deductive methodology and a demanding-performing approach, investigates the Green Infrastructures for the urban project. The paper analyses the ability of Green Infrastructures to reduce vulnerability to climate impacts through the increase of biodiversity, positive effects of green open spaces on health and security against the threats posed by pathogens and the role of the digital network to support the maintenance of Green Infrastructures performance over time.</span></p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Metabolic cities of the future. Between Agriculture and Architecture 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Leonardo Zaffi Michele D'Ostuni <p><span lang="EN">The constant migratory phenomena and the displacement of part of the world’s population from the countryside to the city are bringing great part of the agricultural workforce in the big cities, changing their work sector from agriculture to industry. In this context, theorists and promoters of urban farming have seen in this industry a powerful tool to find spaces suitable for cultivation within the urban fabric, while promoting a new green development of the city. Resuming the fascination of mega-structures proposed in the second half of the twentieth century, in the gap between utopia and dystopia, this essay investigates models and solutions for the integration of agricultural production systems within above-ground architectures, designed to meet the demand for new living spaces in future ultra-populated cities, as a possible response to the soil impoverishment that made it difficult to implement traditional farming systems in and around urban areas.</span></p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Outposts. Design inventories for a possible future between biology and the artefact 2021-01-27T23:50:54+00:00 Vincenzo Moschetti <p><span lang="EN-GB">The theme of the forest reconfigures new maps to explore. Numerous reports (FAO, ISTAT, UE) demonstrate an ‘advance’ of biological systems, building through heredity grey areas within which ‘nature’ is incessantly at work. It is not a question of deciphering a possible and renewed domestication of the ‘forests’, but rather of a preferable use of the devices – as revealed by Agamben – for identifying how architecture can place itself within a completely autonomous organism. The essay makes use of the examples offered by Giorgini’s Casa Esagono in Baratti and Perugini’s Casa Albero in Fregene, together with the more recent Horizontal Skyscraper by Herzog &amp; de Meuron, to manifest a preferable advance, parallel to that of forests which, according to the evidence available, will continue to expand in the future and within which it is desirable, if not necessary, to ‘work’ using the figure of the outpost.</span></p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Built environment and sustainability. Recycled materials and Design for Disassembly between research and good practices 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Cesare Sposito Francesca Scalisi <p>In the context of environmental emergency of which the construction sector is one of the main causes – since it consumes 40% of the (embodied and operational) energy and produces about a third of the total waste – and due to the ambitious objectives set by the international community and by many countries to reduce the environmental impact of buildings during their whole life cycle, this paper wants to make a contribution to the understanding of the state of the art on cycle-based research activities, sustainable experiments and good practices that the building industry and the academy have implemented in recent years.&nbsp; In particular, it refers to cycle-based theoretical and experimental actions involving process and product innovations at different scales (‘macro’, ‘meso’ and ‘micro’) of the built environment. They are capable of overcoming the traditional linear approach to use an approach aiming, on the one hand, to extend the service life cycle, and on the other, to evaluate new bio-based materials, easily renewable and with a low embodied energy. In the end, the paper highlights the problems that currently hinder its dissemination and identifies possible research actions that can favour, with the contribution of Architectural Technology, the transition to this new paradigm.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Mobile Off-grid Achitecture. A potential tool for the resilience of rural communities in the event of natural disasters 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Shota Tajima Satoko Nasu <p>The paper illustrates a study conducted for the town of Nagara in Japan to test the use of mobile off-grid architecture (MOA) in support of the resilience that rural communities are expected to acquire by 2050. In order to cope with the effects of climate change that have severely affected human lives and natural ecosystems, to counter population ageing, migration to larger urban centres and the inefficiency of outdated infrastructure, Japan’s rural areas need to increase their resilience to ensure human continuity in their territories. In this context, the authors propose a MOA solution developed on the basis of literature review and a questionnaire to manufactures and local government, using a deductive approach to determine its feasibility. The results of the experimental project suggest that the MOA could be used for various purposes, including social education and rural community development, although the feasibility has yet to be confirmed in relation to the critical issues represented by the weight and cost of mobile architecture.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Housing for the elderly and digital technologies. Perspectives, processes and future scenarios 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Anna Mangiatordi <p>In the context of an Ageing Society, the technological innovation produced by Digital Age discovers new frontiers and research areas on the topic of living and urban spaces for the elderly. The opportunities offered by the integration of ICTs in the built environment prefigure new settlement scenarios based on the introduction of innovative digital services. Starting from the study of ‘smart homes’ prototype models, the contribution proposes a critical reflection on processes, products and services that could be implemented in future housing for the elderly, facilitating new forms of well-being, security and social inclusion. Compared to ongoing experimental researches, new possible dynamics of innovation in processes and products are delineated, hypothesizing the application of smart systems to real living environments for the elderly.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Fighting against depopulation in inland Spain. Alternatives from Art, Design and Architecture 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 José-Luis Baró Zarzo Javier Poyatos Sebastián Nydia Martínez Martínez <p>The First Industrial Revolution brought about a mass influx of labour force to the cities from the countryside. In Spain, this migratory phenomenon accelerated during the period of development of the 1960s and continues to this day. Unless this is remedied many more villages will disappear in the coming decades, adding to the many deserted areas found in ‘empty Spain’. Many attempts, albeit half-hearted, have been made to reverse or at least put a stop to this territorial imbalance through economic policies such as support of agricultural activities, funding of entrepreneurship, and restoration of cultural heritage for the promotion of rural tourism. There is also an extensive range of imaginative popular initiatives for the repopulation of these municipalities, appealing especially to young people. This context serves as the starting point for this paper which focuses on the analysis of different strategies for the regeneration and survival of depressed rural villages based on architectural, urban, and artistic approaches in the areas of inland Spain.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Unfinished buildings, a new point of departure. Designing difference for a sustainable future 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Maria Luisa Germanà Francesca Anania <p>Contemporary unfinished buildings, which represent a widespread sort of abandoned built environment around the globe, have only recently shaken off the taboo to which they have been relegated by their inescapable condition as symbols of failure. The theoretical connotations attributed to them often fluctuate between the mystifying poles of exaltation and demonization; without discussing these, and looking at trends that can be identified in certain works over the last decades, the article aims to contribute to defining an analytical and design-based approach. This procedure is geared towards the multidimensional goals of sustainability, and to responding in concrete fashion to the demands of stakeholders and the community. The paper aims to demonstrate that, for the sustainable future of unfinished buildings, a new point of departure is needed, in which the design project should focus on actual differences with regard to the cultural premises of the original, interrupted building process.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A sustainable outer Space for a future on Earth. Outer Space, space debris and technologies 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Lucilla Spini <p>Satellites and space objects made life on Earth easier during the Covid-19 pandemic, thanks to the use of digital technologies that have enabled to maintain personal, social and work relationships. A complex system that is articulated in outer Space which appears clean and uncontaminated in the collective imagination, but which is crowded and polluted with space debris that can compromise much of the activities that we depend on. The paper analyzes this context from the point of view of international agreements on outer Space and recent activities pertaining the mitigation and remediation of space debris, towards promoting the issue of sustainability in outer Space with an integrated approach to sustainability on Earth, also to consider outer Space and its resources as ‘natural capital’ and ‘human environment’ within the 2030 Agenda.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) #mycityoftomorrow. A think tank on cities and territories of tomorrow 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Francesco Alberti Stefania Cupillari Eleonora Giannini Sara Naldoni Lorenzo Nofroni <p>The pandemic of Covid-19 represents a chance to rethink the equilibrium of our territories and cities. The sudden revision of rules of social coexistence, the temporary suspension of activities, the modification of everyday gestures, physical public spaces replaced by digital spaces, are only some of the phenomena which happened simultaneously in 2020 due to the pandemic. From the will to reflect in a collective way on the implications of the health emergency on our ways of living, and from the project will to use the crisis as an experimentation field of new practices of sharing and elaboration of future urban scenarios, the campaign #MyCityofTomorrow of the spin-off Urban LIFE (University of Florence) was designed as an online platform of open dialogue on the topics which inform urban design and planning, in its broader sense, a discussion table to orient the restarts towards a more sustainable future.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Commoning in the practice of urban governance. An experience from OBRAS project 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Andrea Boeri Danila Longo Martina Massari Rossella Roversi Francesca Sabatini <p>The complexity of the contemporary urban scenario, now in constant revolution, calls for new forms of governance: able to combine the stances of institutional actors, civil society and the entrepreneurial world; commoning, born as a form of bottom-up re-appropriation of neglected spaces, has now become a multi-scalar, shared practice, which inspired the approach of the OBRAS project analysed here. In the first section the literary review frames the research context, with reference to urban commoning practices for the re-activation of places, and its relation with urban governance; in the second section, the methodology and physical context of the workshops, Bologna and Bogotá, are introduced. The methodology and results of the project are presented in the third section: the multi-scalar, cross-cutting and shared practices adopted and the meta-project solutions produced. The fourth section summarizes the OBRAS experience, with results, limits and future developments of the project.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) New technologies for future living. A proposal for 2100s Milan 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Paola Marrone Claudio Piferi Antonello Monsù Scolaro Elisa Belardi Manuela Demurtas Maria Grazia Giardinelli Federico Orsini Valentina Santi Andrea Sichi <p>Evolutionary dynamics and the current environmental, social and economic emergencies envisage new urban visions requiring designers to shift the reference time’s horizon towards long-period scenarios. The contribution refers to this context with the aim to investigate future inhabiting presenting the results of a design experience of urban regeneration led in Milan for RELIVE 2019 competition. The project draws inspiration from last century’s utopian cities visions and is developed based on an Amplified Requirements Framework projected towards long-term scenarios. The design proposal integrates traditional tools and technologies with the new possibilities offered by Key Enabling Technologies prefiguring a replicable model for a resilient, inclusive and low-environmental impact city.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Plan scenarios by designing scenes 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Michela Barosio Manfredo Nicolis di Robilant <p>Prompting from the ambition to reach an adequate resilience in urban design, this research proposal tackles the 17th century complex of Trinità delle Monache in Naples (Italy). The research focuses on the methodological tools and the negotiation’s processes that address the project, together with its formal outputs, in supporting the decision-making process. The goal of the research is to elaborate a project’s methodology that could allow to compare and evaluate the different potentials that are embedded in different approaches to the case study. Therefore, the proposal is more a meta-project than a project, since it suggests a threefold array of scenarios that would respond to three different modalities of interaction between the public and private subjects involved in the project itself. Three different interpretations of the category of ‘common goods’ stem from each of these scenarios.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Open innovation for property management in emergency and post-emergency pandemic regime 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Massimo Lauria Maria Azzalin <p>The paper introduces an ongoing research activity named BIMaid – Bim-basedforcovid19 Protocols. It is part of R&amp;D program developed by BIG Srl – Academic spin-off of ‘Mediterranea’ of Reggio Calabria – aimed at innovative governance of real estate assets, that welcomes the challenge of managing buildings in an emergency and post-emergency regime from Covid-19. It proposes, through Smart BIM-based Protocols, methodological and process solutions to plan and manage the ‘new normal’, to guarantee social distancing, environmental sanitation, and adaptation of spaces. In general terms, it supports the ongoing transition towards a management policy that uses the tools of digital culture and interoperability to keep the main variables under control already in the decision-making phase.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Visions of a greener future for the Seil of Amman. Augmented Reality as an urban design tool 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Janset Shawash Narmeen Marji <p>In a context characterized by flooding and environmental degradation of the Seil of Amman (natural heritage of the capital of Jordan), caused by climate change, rapid urbanization and unsustainable stormwater management, the paper explores the potential of new Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) technologies as a tool of public engagement with new ecologically sustainable urban regeneration projects. Therefore, two possible scenarios for a green/blue intervention in the Ras al-Ein area on the path of the Seil are presented, elaborated through a specially developed immersive mobile augmented reality software, describing both the application development process and the users’ response.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A sustainable future for hamlets. Albergo Diffuso and new regeneration scenarios 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Giancarlo Dall’Ara Teresa Villani <p>This paper addresses the global and unprecedented crisis that has hit the tourism industry and the great thrust towards regeneration and rebirth of hamlets, considered today as places for future living. The paper intends to provide a different reading of the accommodation model Albergo Diffuso, to highlight its potential in regeneration of hamlets, social inclusion, and repurposing of the built environment, favouring reuse and zero soil occupation. Starting from the specific features of facilities and the new ‘demand’, we present the results of a fact-finding survey aimed at developing meta-design tools, assessing impact in terms of regeneration of hamlets, and identifying strategies and actions to define best practices of operation on the built environment, with a responsible and sustainable perspective.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The circular economy for food in future cities. Good practices that define Smart Food 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Franco Fassio Elisa Cionchi Alice Tondella <p>Food, a basic unit of connection among all SDGs, plays an essential role in the transition towards a sustainable development. This essay makes its scientific contribution to define both the theoretical-practical framework where the Circular Economy for food is developing and, in particular, its application to the urban context. When the population increases, the resources demand increases in the urban areas too, and environmental problems and socio-economic differences among citizens emerge. The analysis originates from 27 case histories concerning the food system, selected in order to represent the circular business models emerging from urban contexts and differing in the several steps of the food supply chain. Nine of them are closely studied in this essay to make the analysis clearer. A so-called Smart Food framework emerges, where the urban circular economy communicates with sustainable development in a systemic and regenerative way.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Human connections. Design interactive artefacts through narration and speculation 2021-01-27T23:50:53+00:00 Andrea Di Salvo Andrea Arcoraci <p>The research in design today is looking for solutions that repair the problems that design itself has created, however, focusing only on reactive attitude is no longer sufficient for the current complexity of the system. Design needs, in fact, to push itself towards a proactive way, it must be able to anticipate, imagine and offer possible and preferable futures by encouraging social innovation. The article, therefore, aims to illustrate a research approach based on the intersection between interaction design, design fiction and speculative design. The objective of the experimentation, which adopts the research through design methodology, is to raise new perspectives on human behaviour through interaction with artefacts and cities, facilitating discussion about the infinite ways of thinking about the future.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The planning of a territorial network among food, health and design 2021-02-10T07:35:49+00:00 Pier Paolo Peruccio Alessandra Savina <p>Today’s high-impact food production and consumption patterns are contributing to the loss of biodiversity and cultural identity, triggering irreversible change. This is why healthy nutrition, as the foundation of a socio-environmental balance, is considered transversally in the challenges suggested by the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The aim of this article is to investigate how the pursuit of better health at community level can be achieved through a multidisciplinary territorial project. The article describes the Cibo, Comunità e Salute project – developed by the Department of Architecture and Design of Politecnico di Torino and the CioCheVale Association – which has initiated a useful discussion between different stakeholders on the themes of food, health and sustainability, mediated and guided by systemic design.</p> 2020-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)