AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design 2021-06-23T11:05:28+00:00 Prof. Arch. Cesare Sposito Open Journal Systems <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span>&nbsp;Scientific International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (product and visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the Journal includes essays and research works on a specific theme, unpublished works and not submitted for publication with other publishers.<br>The Journal through its internal Board promotes and monitors the double-blind peer review process as a method of selecting articles, providing a mandatory form for reporting. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of international scientific community. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality/innovation, the relevance of the investigated topic for the advancement of knowledge, the knowledge and ability to use literature, the methodological rigour, the content clarity and presentation style, the impact on the scientific community, but also the easy accessibility and the wide diffusion of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles are inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and are classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p>AGATHÓN publishes, both electronically and in print, two issues per year, in June and December. The first issue was published in June 2017 and since then the programmed issues have been produced regularly.</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contribution <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer-review process.</p> The Second Life of the Built Environment 2021-06-23T08:35:05+00:00 Cesare Sposito Francesca Scalisi 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cesare Sposito, Francesca Scalisi Paradigms 2021-06-23T08:35:05+00:00 Massimo Lauria Maria Azzalin <p>The paper investigates and analyses creation, success and evolution of different Paradigms that have characterised mankind modern history, strongly connecting social, scientific, technological and economic contexts. The paper critically outlines their characteristics, peculiarities and logical structures, and then re-interpret them in the light of the ongoing transition and particularly of the changes that the digital transformation is determining on the important subjects of environmental policies, of technological innovation – and therefore of ‘living’ – and particularly of sustainable building in the digital era. By underlining the success of a new habitat – the digital ecosystem – this reading associates to the mentioned Paradigms, new characteristics outlining attributes, areas, problems and developments of a possible ‘second life’, of which is not quite simple today to foresee results on the architectural languages, the transformations of the implemental procedures, the new characteristic, besides ecological and digital, the ones already known.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Massimo Lauria, Maria Azzalin The shift from new build to regeneration. Can the New Bauhaus transform architecture and design to meet global challenges? 2021-06-23T08:35:04+00:00 David Ness <p>The New European Bauhaus forms part of a Renovation Wave and complements the EU Green Deal – a commitment to tackling climate and environment related challenges by ‘decoupling’ economic growth from resource use, while leading to a ‘fair and prosperous’ society. After arguing that the Green Deal does not go far enough to achieve the dramatic transformation required, a new agenda is put forward where needs are met with less consumption and carbon, less new building, and more regeneration. The New Bauhaus, intended to ‘match sustainability with style’, is seen as the ‘engine room’ and inspiration for this agenda, which may radically disrupt and transform current approaches to architecture. Thus, constraints imposed by regeneration of existing buildings, with their ethical and cultural dimensions, can inspire greater creativity and imagination while conserving carbon, cost, and character.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 David Ness From resource circularity policies to the zero-waste strategy 2021-06-23T08:35:04+00:00 Adolfo F. L. Baratta <p>Over the last twenty years, waste management policies were aimed to mitigate environmental impacts; but in most cases the results of these policies had been the downcycling. The upcycling and the transition to circularity are good solutions to remedy the impacts of linear patterns of production and consumption. However, the only way to reduce environmental pressure is not through recycling but through reusing and avoiding waste production. In this direction, designers could play a significant role thanks to strategies such as those of Design for Longevity and Design for Deconstruction. Even if there are still few decision-making tools to support an effective evaluation of waste in the design phase, the above-mentioned strategies could lead designers towards a Zero Waste Strategy.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adolfo F. L. Baratta The second life of micro-organisms. Bio-digital design for a new ecology of space and behaviour 2021-06-23T08:35:04+00:00 Alessandro Valenti Claudia Pasquero <p>To reflect today, as designers and researchers, on the issue of Second Life, is to pose questions not only about the potential contemporary articulations of the term within a disciplinary field defined by knowledge that intertwines sectors like Urbanism, Architecture, Interior Design and Design but also to explore the very concept of life rendering living organisms – both human and not – as an active part of the speculation and the eventual experimentations giving new meaning to actions like regeneration or reuse. To do so, it is necessary to amplify the range of intervention and to engage other disciplines like biology and computer science, but also philosophy, anthropology and many more. An example of this practice is systemic design, a method defined by the combination and integration of systemic thought, computational design, biotechnology and prototyping. It is an extended approach to design – ranging from the micro to macro – incorporated in applications where projects and installations become interactive laboratories based on interspecies collaboration. A testament to this approach is the work carried out by a multidisciplinary entity like ecoLogicStudio, through theory and practice.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alessandro Valenti, Claudia Pasquero ‘Valorisation’. For a renewed vitality of the monuments 2021-06-23T08:35:03+00:00 Giovanni Carbonara <p>After an introduction comparing the concepts of ‘restoration’ and ‘valorisation’, we go on to examine the limits of modern restoration, in a critical and conservative sense. It is characterised by its methodological openness towards modernity, on the one hand, and thematic openness on the other, relating to a broader category of ‘assets’ than the traditional one, not reserved only for expressions of high historical and artistic value. It then goes on to consider what, although it concerns the world of pre-existence, cannot be defined as restoration and preservation; finally, it considers the methods and tasks of enhancement, which, in its most authentic sense, goes hand in hand with restoration and in some respects follows it, guaranteeing first the conditions for recognition of the asset to be protected, then those of its good management, use and maintenance over time.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Giovanni Carbonara Design and circular economy. Architectures that regenerate the built fabric 2021-06-23T11:05:28+00:00 Gerardo Semprebon Kevin Santus Stefano Sartorio Arianna Luisa Nicoletta Scaioli <p>Although the circular economy has occupied a crucial place in the development agendas of industrialized countries in recent years, the construction sector still seems far from a mature understanding of the cultural dimensions related to the notion of circularity since, until now, its focus has been mainly on improving technological solutions. However, the circular economy opens up new operational frontiers beyond the scale of the construction detail. It embraces more complex social and cultural fields that ultimately question the changing relationship between man and inhabited space. The article assumes this perspective and examines the possible implications of circular logics’ spatial organizations at larger scales that have a great impact on settlement forms, proposing a critical comparison between two case studies characterized by two built fabrics with different densities. The first one is the regeneration of the Ilot de l’Arc de Triomphe district (high density and compactness), and the second one is the transformation of Contrada Bricconi (low density and rarefaction). The two design experiences ensure a second life to inhabited artifacts and soils.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gerardo Semprebon, Kevin Santus, Stefano Sartorio, Arianna Luisa Nicoletta Scaioli UNPARK. The second life of an infrastructure in a high-density urban environment 2021-06-23T08:35:03+00:00 Paolo Carli Patrizia Scrugli <p>The UNPark research project moves within the boundaries of urban mining, applying the idea of ‘wasted architecture’ to be salvaged and repurposed for urban infrastructures, thus ‘reclaiming public space’ where it was not previously possible. The underlying assumption is that there is latent potential hidden in infrastructures, waiting to be discovered and developed through upcycling operations which add new and creative uses to their original functions – uses that are closer to citizens’ actual needs and capable of having a positive impact on urban dynamics. The sphere of action for UNPark is the Serra-Monte Ceneri flyover in Milan; however, the multidisciplinary approach, evidence-based design and final considerations of the project are all transferrable to a range of national and international contexts. With this in mind, the contribution aims to cast light on a topic with a great deal of potential to fuel debate within the discipline as well as our cities.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Paolo Carli, Patrizia Scrugli Configurations, deformations, mutations. Criteria of morphological analysis in adaptive reuse 2021-06-23T08:35:03+00:00 Elena Guidetti Alessandro Massarente <p>The reuse of existing buildings is a topic of strategic interest in a perspective of sustainability and efficient use of resources. Since many buildings tend to survive over time the functions for which they were designed, it is necessary to analyze reuse interventions through a diachronic process. Among the multiple factors that contribute to the project of a reuse intervention, a key aspect is constituted by the underlying morphology of its pre-existence. Therefore, starting from the hypothesis that a building whose original function has mutated can no longer be characterized through it, but rather through the permanence of its form, we intend to demonstrate that a project of adaptive reuse of a pre-existing building implies a morphological potential through which it is possible to determine diversified cognitive approaches and transformation scenarios.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Elena Guidetti, Alessandro Massarente Addition, alteration, reconstruction. Three models of adaptive re-use 2021-06-23T08:35:02+00:00 Marco Russo <p>The article investigates the subject of re-use of the existing heritage through the analysis of three Chinese projects, carried out over the last five years. They show that it is possible to work with existing structures without necessarily resorting to its total alteration. This ‘new’ generation of Chinese architects, who studied in the USA and Europe, disavows the concept of making a clean slate in order to develop solutions based on the rediscovery of local techniques and materials. Among the key projects of this new trend the paper will dwell on the recovery of a factory by Vector Architects, the addition into existing structures by Horizontal Design and the ideal reconstruction of the imperial kilns by Studio Zhu-Pei.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marco Russo Outline of a theatre proxemics in times of pandemic. Redefinition of spaces 2021-06-23T08:35:02+00:00 Vittorio Fiore <p>The topic of the contribution is the use/re-use of theatrical heritage, a system of spaces that offers heterogeneous ‘materials’ on which to run transformations processes: plays, sets, spaces. In the past, this happened harmonically following the changes in theatrical ‘action’, with stratifications in buildings, redesigns of decorative schemes, reuse of pre-existences that followed the demand for flexibility. The objective is to add new chapters to the ‘theatre proxemics’ that governs human behaviour in these spaces of social aggregation, in order to realign them to the prescriptions dictated by the pandemic. Performing arts, which already received insufficient attention from the Institutions, leading to a heated debate on the scarce economic resources, have experienced restrictions and closures during Covid-19 emergency, calling for the necessity of new values to give these spaces a second life.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vittorio Fiore City that embraces nature. Designing with vertical greenery 2021-06-23T08:35:02+00:00 Elena Comino Matilde Molari Laura Dominici <p>Vertical greenery offers the possibility of redefining the relationship between buildings and vegetation, promoting a biophilic concept of the city that aims to reactivate natural processes and social cohesion. The flexibility and multifunctionality of these systems allow their application in very different contexts, seeing unused urban spaces as alternative places suitable for plant colonisation. The present contribution expands the contemporary debate within which to evaluate the collaboration between man and nature by exploring functional possibilities aimed at overcoming the use of vertical greenery as mere ornamentation. The approaches presented feed the reflection on the interdisciplinary character of this type of technological green, showing an evolving understanding of the environmental, social and economic impacts at a territorial level.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Elena Comino, Matilde Molari, Laura Dominici Research, project, implementation. The case study of the former Riganti Tannery in Rome 2021-06-23T08:35:02+00:00 Andrea Grimaldi Valeria Sansoni <p>While the recovery of monumental buildings is now customary, less obvious is the recovery of the built non-monumental heritage as a result of a historization of events and economic and social activities occurred over time. The subject of this contribution is the experience of research and design carried out on the former Riganti Tannery, a building complex annexed to Villa Poniatowski and part of the real estate heritage of the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia in Rome. Between conservation tout court and radical changes, this research proposes a third way: the addition of a new design ‘level’ as a device to link history with contemporaneity. The contribution also proposes an innovative strategy of collaboration between Institutions, in order to bring the project to the core of an effective process of cultural development.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Grimaldi, Valeria Sansoni Human-made. Waste as a resource for urban regeneration in Jabal al Jofeh refugee camp 2021-06-23T08:35:01+00:00 Noor Marji Janset Shawash Narmeen Marji <p>The paper deals with the use of waste as a resource for urban regeneration and social integration of marginalised communities in Amman (Jordan) through the case study of the Jabal al Jofeh refugee camp, a poor ‘informal’ area with a Palestinian refugee population characterised by high crime, unemployment and poverty rates. The proposed Urban Regeneration Plan focuses on the use and reuse of accumulated waste as construction material and on the creation of a neighbourhood network for the collection, sorting and recycling of waste and its transformation into saleable products that generate income for the community. The vulnerable area of the camp is thus transformed into an active connection with the culturally rich historic centre of Amman through a human-centred approach to urban design and planning, creating a sustainable micro-economy with people as its main resource.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Noor Marji, Janset Shawash, Narmeen Marji Regeneration versus demolition. Strategies, actions and local practices on Yongqing Fang Site 2021-06-23T08:35:01+00:00 Edoardo Bruno Francesco Carota <p>The quick economic and urban growth of China has deeply changed its urban image, promoting both new types of settlement and the demolition of large surfaces to make room for new real estate interventions. In the variable physical and regulatory context of the cities of contemporary China, the development of some pilot projects becomes an opportunity to experiment with innovative regeneration practices of existing urban fabrics. The analysis of the Yongqing Fang case study, located in the old town of the megacity Guangzhou, shows the need to change the practice of the regeneration project within a detailed and negotiated co-operation between public and private, to favour the demand towards the historical Assets of the city. Moreover, the case study allows to implement an analysis model to recover cultural heritage within a holistic and procedural perspective, where the project becomes a tool for negotiation, selective space transformation, urban renovation and social inclusion.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Edoardo Bruno, Francesco Carota Narkomfin’s new life. A ‘prosthesis’ for Ginzburg and Milinis’s masterpiece 2021-06-23T08:35:01+00:00 Luca Lanini Giorgia Puccinelli <p>The article’s object is to recover the original purpose of the Narkomfin through a satellite architecture that embraces some of the functions no longer in use in the famous building by Ginzburg and Milinis, thus renewing its role as a ‘social condenser’ in contemporary post-Soviet Moscow. The strategy here presented is also a possible ‘good practice’ for the maintenance/modification/reuse of similar complexes, very common in the former Soviet Bloc countries as in the Western post-war social housing heritage, through an advanced tool for housing support.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Luca Lanini, Giorgia Puccinelli Urban regeneration. Benefits of nature-based solutions 2021-06-23T08:35:00+00:00 Katia Perini Francesca Mosca Andrea Giachetta <p>Today’s urban environment features several critical issues related to what in Italy is called ‘cementification’: among the main ones, the phenomenon of heat islands, the cause of several problems related to citizens’ health, especially for the weaker population groups such as children and elderly people. This paper presents the results of a research focused on identifying a combination of nature-based solutions, offering good benefits both from the point of view of improving microclimate comfort and from the point of view of psychological comfort for the people who will use the regenerated areas.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Katia Perini, Francesca Mosca, Andrea Giachetta Natural thermal plasters for fibre-composite matrices. Structural-energy-environmental analysis 2021-06-23T08:35:00+00:00 Rosa Romano Valerio Alecci Antonino Maria Marra Elisabetta Palumbo <p>The article presents the first results of MIRACLE research, aimed at designing, testing, and implementing innovative reinforcement systems with bio-composite matrix, with additives containing natural thermal-plasters, usable in the restoration of residential buildings created before 1945. Starting from a brief description of the properties of fibre-reinforced cement organic matrices, supported by a survey of international research aimed at developing innovative methodologies, systems, and components used to improve the energy and mechanical performances of listed historic buildings, the most suitable thermal-plasters will be analysed (among those existing on the Italian market), identifying the performance characteristics both in terms of mechanic and thermal and environmental sustainability.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rosa Romano, Valerio Alecci, Antonino Maria Marra, Elisabetta Palumbo Resource mattress. The potential of refuse materials 2021-06-23T08:35:00+00:00 Alexa Kreissl <p>Mattresses are multi-material products whose exact composition is mostly unknown to the waste collector, so they can hardly be recycled and continue to be incinerated. Valuable resources are lost and no longer returned to the material cycle. Foam re-use and mechanical recycling account for only a negligible share of the market. The research presented here explores the potential of re-using mattresses as thermal and acoustic insulation for construction projects and attempts to find re-purpose in order to reduce waste and emissions, save resources and provide the insulation needed. This specific case study serves as a method to identify and demonstrate the flow and potential on a much larger scale. Considering comparable and possibly compatible properties of different foams this study explores the possibility of using them in a larger format. The approach is based on an unbiased exploration of the material, which only as a second step uses scientific methods to measure the intuitive exploration of the properties.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alexa Kreissl Industrial reconversion in productive clusters. Design and active preservation of local know-how 2021-06-23T08:35:00+00:00 Beatrice Lerma Eva Vanessa Bruno <p>The discipline of Design is called upon to contribute to the preservation and transmission of the productive culture of agglomeration economies, such as industrial Districts, clusters and networks, a culture threatened by the tendency to move the supply-chain out of the territory, with a consequent loss of local identity and know-how. The territory, considered as the ‘design-object’ of the study, is analysed through a holistic and exploratory view, which highlights socio-cultural aspects and relations between stakeholders through gigamaps. The economic complexity of the territorial productive capital is systematised with diagrams showing the connections between products according to the productive capacities of companies. Industrial reconversion is the strategy identified to explore and manage emerging technological paradigms, capable of creating new products that convey the local production culture.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Beatrice Lerma, Eva Vanessa Bruno Spatial design. Experiences and experiments of urban regeneration for a possible taxonomy 2021-06-23T08:34:59+00:00 Carlo Martino Meltem Eti Proto Silvia Cosentino <p>The role played by the culture of Design in the context of the planning of public space has evolved over time. In the sphere of Architecture, the 1990s saw the opening of an international debate that encouraged a process of revising the training methods adopted until that time, in favour of new ones capable of placing people – the true users of objects, spaces, and architectures – at the centre. This raised the possibility of breaking down certain disciplinary boundaries in favour of a transdiscipline, the Design of Spaces and Architectures. Spatial Design calls back into question many of the assumptions of the Urban Planning and Architecture of the short century, starting precisely from the relationship between Space and the user. Through recent case studies, this essay proposes an embryonic taxonomy of public space, basing its perspective upon the scientific principle of the recurrence of certain design solutions.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carlo Martino, Meltem Eti Proto, Silvia Cosentino Beach practices. Models for design-driven seaside regenerations 2021-06-23T08:34:59+00:00 Vincenzo Cristallo Ivo Caruso <p>Regeneration as a design practice and as a collective goal has many ways of manifesting itself. In addition to being normally associated with the principles of sustainability, and to include actions aimed at the recovery, reuse and enhancement of goods and services, over time it has achieved a ‘multifaceted’ meaning capable of including models and examples with original and exploratory characteristics. Among these is the seaside environment, and the beach in particular, examined in this essay on the basis of the results of two research projects with field and desk contents, which recognize that seashores are an integral part of the very metaphor of inhabited space. Therefore, net of a corollary of specific functions, from this area the complexity of contemporary living is also manifested in the mutability of the ‘regenerative genres’, genres that in the paper are shown – and this is its declared argumentative objective – in the scientific perimeter of a ‘design for territories’ socially declined in connective and relational values.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vincenzo Cristallo, Ivo Caruso Multiplying textile lives. Textile collection and recycling in urban Africa 2021-06-23T08:34:59+00:00 Moritz Kasper Elmar Stroomer <p>Worldwide, an estimated 60 billion kilos of textiles and footwear is burned or landfilled every year. Although African countries – including powerhouses such as Kenya and Nigeria – contribute very little to global textile waste, their textile consumption is on the rise. And with increased consumption comes an increased urgency for concepts and designs that utilize textile resources beyond linear lines and singular lives. Africa Collect Textiles was founded in Nairobi, Kenya in 2013, where it has successfully implemented a model for collecting and processing used textiles. Based on fieldwork in Lagos, Nigeria and the extensive experience in Nairobi, this paper will discuss spatial contexts, socio-cultural potentials, and economic modes relevant for adjusting and implementing a textile collection and recycling initiative in urban Africa.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Moritz Kasper, Elmar Stroomer Management of waste from the pruning of urban greenery. Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil 2021-06-23T08:34:58+00:00 Tomás Queiroz Ferreira Barata Cyntia Santos Malaguti de Sousa Caio Dutra Profirio de Souza Debora Klingenberg <p>The waste management of urban greenery is directly related to the sustainability of cities. Architects, designers, managers, and entrepreneurs have used woody residues creatively, in innovative business models, focusing on the transition to a circular economy. This article presents a systemic analysis of experiences on the theme, with an emphasis on the use of woody residues, from the design perspective, taking the State of São Paulo, Brazil, as the locus of investigation. The research covers: consolidation of the theoretical knowledge, bibliographic review on guidelines, best practices and production flow models, and the diagnosis of four local initiatives. The results demonstrate the relevant role of design as an inducer of new business models, as well as the importance of universities, in knowledge dissemination, technology transfer, and new initiatives proposals, with multiplier effects.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tomás Queiroz Ferreira Barata, Cyntia Santos Malaguti de Sousa, Caio Dutra Profirio de Souza, Debora Klingenberg Bio-based circular materials. Innovative packaging and construction products 2021-06-23T08:34:58+00:00 Antonella Violano Monica Cannaviello Salvatore Del Prete <p>The European Green Deal and the European Climate Law of the European Parliament are the socio-political context in which the construction industry has to engage in order to reduce upfront carbon. This focus puts the role of building materials in a new perspective. By focusing on the development of innovative solutions that specifically address biotic and bio-based materials, the Cradle-to-Cradle approach values biobased materials and gives them a key role in the transition to the circular economy. The paper presents an innovative material, the complex outcome of two different research projects conducted by the ZEB<sub>twd</sub>ZEEB Group of the ‘L. Vanvitelli’ University of Campania in collaboration with the innovative start-up Service Biotech Srl, winner of the BioInItaly Investment Forum 2021 &amp; Intesa Sanpaolo Start-Up Initiative for the Circular Bioeconomy sector.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antonella Violano, Monica Cannaviello, Salvatore Del Prete Design guidelines for business-to-consumer reusable packaging. A circular economy approach 2021-06-23T08:34:58+00:00 Cyntia Santos Malaguti de Sousa Caio Dutra Profirio de Souza <p>Within the circular strategies for packaging items, reusing is an approach considered in order to preserve more embedded value in terms of energy, labour and materials, instead of other alternatives, such as recycling. While that has already been adopted at scale in Business-to-Business packaging applications, solutions in a Business-to-Consumer approach remain less explored. This study reports a preliminary framework about the benefits and limitations of Business-to-Consumer reusable packaging applications, relying on data obtained by related literature review, opportunistic semi-structured interviews with users and web survey. As a result, it provides a systematization of design guidelines that may contribute to the development of Business-to-Consumer reusable packaging, an approach considered relevant, but usually overlooked, that could deliver functionally and aesthetically improved packaging that can conveniently benefit both users and manufacturers.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Cyntia Santos Malaguti de Sousa, Caio Dutra Profirio de Souza