AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span>&nbsp;Scientific International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (product and visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the Journal includes essays and research works on a specific theme, unpublished works and not submitted for publication with other publishers.<br>The Journal through its internal Board promotes and monitors the double-blind peer review process as a method of selecting articles, providing a mandatory form for reporting. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of the international scientific communities. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality/innovation, the relevance of the investigated topic for the advancement of knowledge, the knowledge and ability to use literature, the methodological rigour, the content clarity and presentation style, the impact on the scientific community, but also the easy accessibility and the wide diffusion of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles are inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and are classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p>AGATHÓN publishes, both electronically and in print, two issues per year, in June and December. The first issue was published in June 2017 and since then the programmed issues have been produced regularly.</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contributions <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer-review process.</p> en-US <p>This Journal is published under&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0</a>&nbsp;(CC-BY).<br><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src=""></a><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">License scheme</a>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Legal code</a><br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This License allows anyone to</span>:<br>Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.<br>Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Under the following terms</span><br>Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.<br>No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Notices</span><br>Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.<br>No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.</p> (Prof. Arch. Cesare Sposito) (Dott. Arch. PhD Francesca Scalisi | DEMETRA Ce.Ri.Med.) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Connecting people, places and things Francesca Scalisi Copyright (c) 2021 Francesca Scalisi Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Links for a common cultural identity in the Mediterranean Basin <p>The Mediterranean Sea can be considered the common link between all the Countries surrounding it. Different peoples, cultures, arts, crafts, religions and traditions have passed through it, forging both a shared cultural identity and also differences, which can be easily traced in a lot of cities and territories. The Mediterranean city suggests unions and dissonances, sealing the alliance pact that has seen peaceful coexistence, albeit after the imposed dominations of a multi-ethnic and multicultural society. Many cities overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, as Barcelona, Palermo and Skikda, still today impose a reflection about how is strong the evident relation between their different ways of living. We also want to associate the shared creation – through the European Erasmus+ project, K2 action, entitled Smart Rehabilitation 3.0 – of a common professional profile in Building Rehabilitation Expert, as a model of rehabilitation and safeguard for historic Mediterranean cities.</p> Montserrat Bosch Gonzáles, Tiziana Campisi Copyright (c) 2021 Montserrat Bosch Gonzáles, Tiziana Campisi Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Trasversal territories. Rural and industrial small towns in Sicily and Spain <p>The orographic and natural conditions, together with small towns’ cultural, heritage and industrial conditions, have become the landscape of relationships between spaces where silence, slowing down and acceleration define the urban and human imaginary of these transversal territories. Although very different from each other in terms of topographical location, traditions and cultural and linguistic specificities, it is possible to find constants of criticality and potential. This essay illustrates new readings and settles meanings to initiate a collaborative work in Sicily and Spain along the Trasversale Sicula and in the mining landscape of the Minas de La Reunión in the province of Seville. Here, it is possible to combine material and immaterial imaginaries that find the ideal setting in the rural and industrial small towns to start again from what remains and from the potential given by the generations in comparison.</p> Guido Cimadomo, Renzo Lecardane, María Isabel Alba Dorado Copyright (c) 2021 Guido Cimadomo, Renzo Lecardane, Maria Isabel Alba Dorado Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ecology and digital technologies. Small-scale architecture as a place of connections <p>Starting from the relationships between digital technologies and environmental culture, the essay aims to outline the contours of the new ecological dimension of architectural design as a place of multiple and interacting connections in which we can critically resolve the dichotomy between nature and culture. From this point of view, small-scale architecture provides a promising field of experimentation in which new technological systems, marked by more efficient ecological solutions, meet and integrate with the management of biological cycles. Industrial and production processes, rethought on the basis of the circularity paradigm, can be organised in a similar way to natural ecosystems with regard to the use of energy and materials, becoming a promising option for making them more efficient and sustainable.</p> Massimo Perriccioli, Roberto Ruggiero, Michael Salka Copyright (c) 2021 Massimo Perriccioli, Roberto Ruggiero, Michael Salka Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Diy-City and internet of things. A research hypothesis around interactive urban design <p>In a renewed and critical interpretation of the idea of the so-called ‘smart city’, it may serve to prefigure a paradigm shift in urban design: from the apparently irresolvable opposition between top-down and bottom-up processes that marked the debates on participatory design in the last quarter of the 20th century, it will be possible to move towards the idea of collaboration between citizens, businesses and institutions that is both top-down and bottom-up. The tools offered by digital technologies can in fact promise a horizon of ‘co-making’, understood as an interactive urban project, capable of refining the production of the city space, but also of expressing its social and symbolic value and finally of conceiving and designing innovative urban scenarios in a more participatory way. In order to do this, the research hypothesis illustrated prefigures a sort of Turing machine of urban design, capable of transforming data (voluntarily and involuntarily provided by citizens) into actions aimed at designing the space of the city.</p> Marco Trisciuoglio Copyright (c) 2021 Marco Trisciuoglio Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analogue-digital dialectics in architectural design. Towards renewed hypotheses of method <p>The dichotomy between analogue and digital influences the methods of design, production, construction, as well as the formal horizons of architecture. This dichotomy is apparently only related to the contemporary situation in which architecture is thought, built, and managed in increasingly computerised ways, and is consequently distanced from its more concrete aspects. However, a deep understanding of the meanings of analogue and digital reveals a dialectical relationship that can be looked to in order to renew aspects of the method of architectural design.</p> Giuseppe Canestrino Copyright (c) 2021 Giuseppe Canestrino Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 New museographic frontiers. Immateriality and multimediality of the narrative museum <p>The contribution explores, also through the reading of some case studies, the constitutive and connotative aspects of what can be defined as the new ‘frontier of museography’. A ‘frontier’ recognisable in the definition of museum structured according to the concept of ‘integrated installation’ which is mainly based on the combination of advanced technological equipment, art and interactivity of museographic content dissemination systems. In these last years several museum experiences have been developed, characterised by investigations on the new technological languages, but not neglecting the fundamental elaboration of aims and contents of the same exhibition projects characterised by the relation material/immaterial. This is an articulated path that crosses the boundaries of various disciplines such as theatre, cinema and visual art.</p> Giuseppe Di Benedetto Copyright (c) 2021 Giuseppe Di Benedetto Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The body of interactive architecture. Scenario-based and generative approaches <p>The complexity of reality, both physical and virtual, in which we are immersed requires a reflection on how to achieve integration between the digital world and contemporary architecture. In particular, the article intends to explore the way in which virtual information can become design material, also intervening on the spatial and formal characteristics of the built environment. Therefore, two different approaches in interactive architectures will be discussed, one scenario-based and the other generative, capable of establishing the physical boundaries of the relationship between architecture and information. Jade Eco Park, Translated Geometries and One Ocean Pavilion offer a different key to interpreting the relationship between man, building and surrounding environment, in a meta-textual relationship between the physical and the virtual that calls contemporary architecture to reflect on the potential of this phenomenon.</p> Bianca Andaloro Copyright (c) 2021 Bianca Andaloro Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Smart construction object. Tools for reprogramming the city <p>The focus on the concept of Smart Cities in the shift towards circular development models derives from the ability to govern increasingly complex phenomena and processes. By introducing data-driven approaches, the information produced by ICT technologies allows us to ‘reprogram’ the functioning of the urban system, as a complex ecosystem in which matter and energy are continuously transformed. Starting from the analysis of research experiences carried out at the European level, this paper aims to explore potential and real barriers related to Smart Construction Objects in urban processes. Technological-digital integration, the use of data, and the emergence of new economic management models based on services are investigated with reference to façade systems, as components able to generate and share information to govern the input and output of the urban metabolic system.</p> Riccardo Pollo, Matteo Giovanardi, Matteo Trane Copyright (c) 2021 Riccardo Pollo, Matteo Giovanardi, Matteo Trane Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 'Green' strategies and approaches. A contribution from the off-site and upcycling of discarded shipping containers <p>The Earth is in a vulnerable state that most scholars attribute to a model of infinite growth on a planet with limited resources. Taking into account this critical environmental context, the paper wants to stimulate new practices for the building industry by suggesting a systemic vision that simultaneously uses multiple sustainable and circular approaches and allows eliminating scraps and waste, by combining traditional and innovative techniques and technologies. In particular, the article shows the potential of off-site in reducing environmental direct and indirect impacts compared to an equivalent conventional construction and recent research on the upcycling of discarded sea containers: they are used as a good practice to enhance an industrial end-of-life product (therefore considered a waste) by re-inserting it into a ‘circular’ economy with a different use than its original one, through non-destructive recycling and, at the same time, improving its value, quality and performance.</p> Francesca Scalisi, Cesare Sposito Copyright (c) 2021 Francesca Scalisi, Cesare Sposito Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital rule-based compliance processes. The urban regeneration of ex-Corradini, Naples (IT) <p>The paper investigates the cultural and technical transformations in architectural design produced by digital technologies, considering ‘data’ as a strategic asset for the definition of new connections between the physical environment, virtuality and digitalization in order to improve the decision-making processes underpinning design choices. The article explores the case of the urban regeneration of the Corradini ex-industrial area in Naples, offering an experimental application of rule-based compliance protocols within a high informative uncertainty context. The application of BIM-based procedures in the early design process stage becomes an opportunity to develop a multi-scenario approach, which employs Code and Model Checking systems as ‘heuristic’ tools to support decisions and enhancing risk management in complex projects.</p> Marina Rigillo, Sergio Russo Ermolli, Giuliano Galluccio Copyright (c) 2021 Marina Rigillo, Sergio Russo Ermolli, Giuliano Galluccio Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Structuring connections for landscape care. The case of Casilino Ecomuseum in Rome <p>The ongoing environmental and social crises, amplified by the pandemic, highlight the urgent need for of new development models, based on sustainability, participation and subsidiarity. In this context, cultural institutions play a fundamental role, facilitating the construction of social capital. The case of ecomuseums is emblematic, because they offer methods, tools and practices for the recognition of local identities, co-design, care and management of the landscape and its economic value as well. The contribution supplies the framework of these ecomuseum tools, with a focus on the Casilino Ad Duas Lauros Ecomuseum in Rome, at the forefront in the realisation of physical connections to make its District a green infrastructure, virtual connections to create narrations and links of meaning and digital connections to promote social inclusion and participation.</p> Raffaella Riva, Claudio Gnessi Copyright (c) 2021 Raffaella Riva, Claudio Gnessi Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physical, digital, virtual, intangible. Research experiences in Museums <p>This paper dwells on the many meanings the digital artefacts can have, their value and their replicability. It presents some critical and methodological thoughts on the use of digital tools in the museums. Using consolidated taxonomies and redefining the digital tools to be innovatively applied to Cultural Assets, the essay describes some research experiences carried out over the last years. From the creation of virtual reconstructions of the past, to the opportunity to work on virtual models, operating on informative stratification not perceptible by simply observing the collection’s item and avoiding its evolution into a simple repetition of the perceptual experience of the real object.</p> Massimiliano Lo Turco, Elisabetta Caterina Giovannini, Andrea Tomalini Copyright (c) 2021 Massimiliano Lo Turco, Elisabetta Caterina Giovannini, Andrea Tomalini Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 New design approaches for future technological scenarios. Connections between present and future <p>We are witnessing an exponential technological development adopting digital processes in all aspects of our life, and establishing a symbiotic connection between physical and virtual realities. Design has been able to maintain a connection between humanities and technologies in its identity, and through the Design Thinking (DT) approach it has provided companies with quick and effective answers. But when new problems and new necessities appear, DT needs to change. The article dwells on the will to implement the process of DT with Design Future (DF) to create a new tool able to manage non-linear future scenarios and face social challenges of the future in advance. The article presents two new methodological approaches born from this integration (DT/DF) with the related hypothetical processes to design medium and long-term future scenarios in different contexts.</p> Laura Anselmi, Marita Canina, Carmen Bruno, Davide Minighin Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Anselmi, Marita Canina, Carmen Bruno, Davide Minighin Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Generative design and industrial product. Connecting physical/digital dimensions of the project <p>The evolution of modelling techniques has made possible to connect in a more efficient way what is physical and what is virtually designed, using simulation processes that have allowed the evolution of conditions of use and material production of the model. This contribution aims to discuss, by presenting emblematic case studies, how the implementation of new virtual technologies of generative parametric modelling has allowed to evolve and improve, in terms of efficiency and innovation, the development of industrial products. Thus, the designer assumes a central role in the experimentation of new design methodologies aimed at the use of virtual models not as a simple formal expression, but as an optimisation process from multiple points of view.</p> Davide Paciotti, Alessandro Di Stefano Copyright (c) 2021 Davide Paciotti, Alessandro Di Stefano Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 When lights turn off. Future perspectives to design smart homes <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has strongly shown the uncertainty and complexity of our lives. We are involved and we participate in questioning our consolidated life models and in the experimentation of new political and economic models, involving different actors, from the governments to the communities or virtual societies. Technologies have definitely an essential role in these transformations and global challenges aimed to change. This essay analyses the link between this general phenomenon and its particular effect on private citizens, focusing on the digitisation of spaces and, in particular, domestic spaces. Challenges and emerging situations will be highlighted through some case studies concerning smart home systems, different in terms of technology and infrastructure, methods of interaction, hardware and software, and their relationship with the design of this kind of environment. In conclusion, we will present a critical approach to complex systems of the near future, to design in a more conscious and coherent way an intelligent, human-sized and sustainable environment to live in.</p> Matteo O. Ingaramo, Mila Stepanovic Copyright (c) 2021 Matteo O. Ingaramo, Mila Stepanovic Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Material interfaces. Biological meets digital <p>The introduction to the concept of ‘digital materiality’ goes beyond the custom of considering matters’ physical characteristics as the opposite of virtual, binary and digital ones. Bonsiepe, in 1995, had already integrated the material characteristics of objects and the semiotic value of the interface, acknowledging its ability to become a ‘non-verbal language’, ‘spatial system’ establishing new relationships between the human body and technology. Therefore, surfaces have the key role of ‘membranes’, creating and receiving stimuli from inside and outside, and from subject and object. From this framework, it emerges the need to experiment alternative solutions meeting circularity/sustainability and experience/enjoyment needs, for example, through material interfaces or experiments on new biofabricated materials, such as microbial nanocellulose.</p> Sabrina Lucibello, Lorena Trebbi, Chiara Del Gesso Copyright (c) 2021 Sabrina Lucibello, Lorena Trebbi, Chiara Del Gesso Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design and innovation for the Cultural Heritage. Phygital connections for a Heritage of proximity <p>The article presents reflections in the field of design for the Cultural Heritage within the ‘phygital’ scenario, in which the physical-analogical world converges and interacts with the virtual-digital world in a new fluid space. This condition has a significant impact on the cultural Heritage, both on its nature and definition and its accessibility and experience, as it becomes an indivisible continuum of tangible and intangible elements extended and connected in time and space. The potential of new technologies makes it possible to create significant connections between the Heritage, the users and the stakeholders, in a hybrid spatial dimension of both physical and metaphorical proximity. Design culture responds to these transformations (and to the need for new ways to relate to, become involved with and connect deeply with the Heritage, partly in response to the post-pandemic crisis) with an innovative approach to culture-driven technology. Defined as ‘culture-driven innovation’, it aims to innovate the user experience and hence the experience of designing with the Heritage, through the co-creation of augmented and amplified narratives, participatory and contributory co-curatorial practices, as well as performance practices and the creative re-use of the cultural Heritage.</p> Eleonora Lupo Copyright (c) 2021 Eleonora Lupo Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Communicating the museum between analogue and digital. Interactive multimedia design experience <p>This paper deals with the relationship between museum communication and information technologies, providing an overview of the main international references that witness the evolution of museums between analogue and digital, up to the radicality of immersive environments. The theoretical apparatus is integrated by the proposal of a methodology between multimedia and IoT, experimented in order to create synergies between research and third mission, implemented through the interdisciplinary project Interactive Multimedia Museum Experience, a model of museum communication that in its variants has been validated in recent years in prestigious museum institutions in the city of Rome.</p> Federica Dal Falco, Silvia Bonomi Copyright (c) 2021 Federica Dal Falco, Silvia Bonomi Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Designing robots. Towards an ethical culture of the aesthetic product <p>Over the last years, service robots with applications in social contexts have developed increasingly sophisticated and intuitive natural communication languages and social skills. Designed in human likeness or with synthetic designs, this kind of robot is the subject of a multidisciplinary activity, in which Design is involved in the design project together with engineering, and the support of anthropology and psychology. The HERE research project wants to give quantitative and qualitative analysis methods and guidelines for an ethical planning of robotic services and products with a high level of accessibility and acceptance by users. The research laboratory concerns university spaces, where telepresence robots are set up as virtual appendixes for students that could not be present.</p> Claudio Germak, Lorenza Abbate Copyright (c) 2021 Claudio Germak, Lorenza Abbate Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Life-saving furniture during an earthquake. Intelligent, interconnected and interacting <p>In earthquake-affected areas, the process of securing historic buildings is complex, requires large investments and long lead times. A systemic and interdisciplinary approach to the design of ‘anti-seismic’ furniture for public contexts, such as schools and offices, in areas of high risk, could be an alternative solution for the protection of people, developing a system of smart and interconnected furniture capable of acting as a life-saving passive protection device. The furniture thus conceived becomes a product-service useful for safeguarding, locating and finding people under the rubble and monitoring the building. The Industrial Research project ‘S.A.F.E. – Sustainable design of anti-seismic furniture as smart life-saving systems during an earthquake’ is part of this scenario.</p> Lucia Pietroni, Jacopo Mascitti, Daniele Galloppo Copyright (c) 2021 Lucia Pietroni, Jacopo Mascitti, Daniele Galloppo Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Forming digital kinships with earthen materials. The T-Stool <p>This paper aims to address how the ceramic process has been conceptualized to develop a new kinship between ceramic and its counterparts through digital technology. The interface between ceramic materials and digital fabrication, outlined here initiates a new collaboration between the real and the digital, whose interactions are tentacular. The design framework aims to rigorously leverage the vibrancy of matter in the design process. The methodology chronicles the fabrication of the T-Stool, as part of interdisciplinary collaboration, to develop a novel press-molding technique for stoneware that uses a two-part, silicone rubber and epoxy mold. The T-Stool was executed in stoneware through the use of a digital twin as a data source for material speculation, to track transformations in the clay, and to implement the use of custom tools.</p> Rhett Russo Copyright (c) 2021 Rhett Russo Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MEET. An interactive exhibition itinerary between co-design and enhancement of the territory <p>In a context of socio-economic and cultural transformations, the diffusion of digital technologies has played a significant role by providing a horizontal tool that can stimulate sharing, simplify communication, and support the physical experience of a place. Even museums and exhibition itineraries, combining physical and digital dimensions, become places of hybridisation. This paper presents a research programme that investigates the field of design for Cultural Heritage. MEET (Multifaceted Experiences for Enhancing Territories) is a collaborative project format that involves institutions, professionals, and citizens in the realisation of an interactive exhibition itinerary dedicated to the enhancement of the local Cultural Heritage through co-design processes.</p> Silvia Gasparotto, Alessandra Bosco, Margo Lengua, Pietro Baruzzi Copyright (c) 2021 Silvia Gasparotto, Alessandra Bosco, Margo Lengua, Pietro Baruzzi Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital sociability in Covid-19 era. Service Design for the analysis of emotional involvement in the digital city <p>The recent world health emergency and the consequent virtualisation of daily life that human beings had to tackle, have brought to light the role of digital technologies in our lives and the problems linked to them. In this context, the article deals with the analysis of the most used digital platforms during the 2020 lockdown, aimed at highlighting the link between its success and the emotional-relational component of the services. To this purpose, an investigation tool coming from Service Design was created. A tool capable of supporting the action of a service performance analysis and its effects in terms of emotional factors: an opportunity for the scientific community to think on the improvement of the socio-relational components of a metaphorical digital city.</p> Carlotta Belluzzi Mus, Alessio Caccamo, Riccardo Fazi, Vincenzo Maselli Copyright (c) 2021 Carlotta Belluzzi Mus, Alessio Caccamo, Riccardo Fazi, Vincenzo Maselli Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Education and memory. Pedagogy of remembrance and communication design <p>Memory is rooted into places, and it can be an elective design tool to communicate the evolution of landscapes and to teach the value of memory. The Institute of Higher Education G. Galilei-R. Luxemburg in Milan interpreted the MIUR call for applications ‘Cinema per la scuola – I progetti delle e per le scuole’, proposing memory topics and creating a documentary about the Institute Marchiondi ‘for problematic children’. Communication Design reveals, with educational effectiveness, what lies behind the obsolescent atmosphere of the brutalist ruins of architecture and starts what can be called a ‘pedagogy of remembrance’. The research results in the analysis of the connections between virtual, physical and digital forms of memory, in an interpretative framework that opens to an educational context.</p> Daniela Anna Calabi, Beatrice Borghi, Clorinda Sissi Galasso Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Anna Calabi, Beatrice Borghi, Clorinda Sissi Galasso Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000