Design guidelines for business-to-consumer reusable packaging. A circular economy approach
Within the circular strategies for packaging items, reusing is an approach considered in order to preserve more embedded value in terms of energy, labour and materials, instead of other alternatives, such as recycling. While that has already been adopted at scale in Business-to-Business packaging applications, solutions in a Business-to-Consumer approach remain less explored. This study reports a preliminary framework about the benefits and limitations of Business-to-Consumer reusable packaging applications, relying on data obtained by related literature review, opportunistic semi-structured interviews with users and web survey. As a result, it provides a systematization of design guidelines that may contribute to the development of Business-to-Consumer reusable packaging, an approach considered relevant, but usually overlooked, that could deliver functionally and aesthetically improved packaging that can conveniently benefit both users and manufacturers.
Alves, I. C. B. L. S. (2020), Estratégia de desenvolvimento de uma solução circular de embalagem alimentar – Um estudo do mercado e do consumidor, Faculdade de Economia – Universidade do Porto, Porto. [Online] Available at: repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/129439/2/423215.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Bocken, N. M. P., de Pauw, I., Bakker, C. and van der Grinten, B. (2016), “Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy”, in Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, vol. 33, issue 5, pp. 308-320. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/21681015.2016.1172124 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Brandes, U., Stich, S. and Wender, M. (2009), Design by use – The everyday metamorphosis of things, Birkhäuser Verlag AG, Basel-Boston-Berlin. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1515/9783034609128 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Coelho, P. M., Corona, B., ten Klooster, R. and Worrell, E. (2020), “Sustainability of reusable packaging – Current situation and trends”, in Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X, vol. 6, article 100037. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.rcrx.2020.100037 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Creswell, J. W. and Creswell, J. D. (2017), Research design – Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, SAGE Publishing, Los Angeles.
Crocker, R. (2016), Somebody else’s problem – Consumerism, Sustainability & Design, Routledge, London.
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2021), Universal Circular Economy Policy Goals – Enabling the transition to scale. [Online] Available at: emf.thirdlight.com/link/kt00azuibf96-ot2800/@/preview/1?o [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2020a), Ten Circular Investment Opportunities for a Low-carbon and Prosperous Recovery. [Online] Available at: ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Plastic-Packaging.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2020b), The Global Commitment – 2020 Progress Report. [Online] Available at: ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Global-Commitment-2020-Progress-Report.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2020c), Upstream Innovation – A guide to Packaging Solutions. [Online] Available at: emf.thirdlight.com/link/agyt3es34kjy-k2qe8a/@/preview/1?o [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2019), Reuse – Rethinking Packaging. [Online] Available at: ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Reuse.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Ertz, M., Huang, R., Jo, M.-S., Karakas, F. and Sarigöllü, E. (2017), “From single-use to multi-use – Study of consumers’ behavior toward consumption of reusable containers”, in Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 193, pp. 334-344. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.060 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Fisher, T. and Shipton, J. (2010), Designing for re-use – The life of consumer packaging, Earthscan, London.
Flick, U. (2019), An introduction to qualitative research, SAGE Publishing, Los Angeles.
Greenpeace (2020), Over 125 health experts sign onto statement on the safety of reusables during Covid-19, 16/06/2020. [Online] Available at: greenpeace.org/usa/research/100-health-experts-sign-onto-safety-of-reusables-statement/ [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Haffmans, S., Gelder, M., Hinte, E. and Zijlstra, Y. (2018), Products that flow – Circular Business Models and Design Strategies for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam.
Hofmann, F. (2019), “Circular business models – Business approach as driver or obstructer of sustainability transitions?”, in Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 224, pp. 361-374. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.115 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Jedlička, W. (2009), Packaging sustainability – Tools, Systems, and Strategies for Innovative Package Design, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
Kaza, S., Yao, L. C., Bhada-Tata, P. and van Woerden, F. (2018), What a waste 2.0 – A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050, World Bank, Washington. [Online] Available at: hdl.handle.net/10986/30317 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Lindh, H., Williams, H., Olsson, A. and Wikström, F. (2016), “Elucidating the indirect contributions of packaging to sustainable development – A terminology of packaging functions and features”, in Packaging Technology and Science, vol. 29, issue 4-5, pp. 225-246. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1002/pts.2197 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Lipovetsky, G. and Serroy, J. (2015), A estetização do mundo – Viver na era do capitalismo artista, Companhia das Letras, São Paulo.
Lofthouse, V., Trimingham, R. and Bhamra, T. (2017), “Reinventing refills: guidelines for design”, in Packaging Technology and Science, vol. 30, issue 12, pp. 809-818. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1002/pts.2337 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Lüdeke-Freund, F., Gold, S. and Bocken, N. M. P. (2019), “A review and typology of circular economy business model patterns”, in Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 36-61. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12763 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Manzini, E. and Vezzoli, C. (2016), O desenvolvimento de produtos sustentáveis – Os requisitos ambientais dos produtos industriais, EDUSP, São Paulo.
McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002), Cradle to Cradle – Remaking the Way We Make Things, North Point Press, USA.
Morseletto, P. (2020), “Targets for a circular economy”, in Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 153, article 104553. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104553 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Potting, J., Hekkert, M., Worrell, E. and Hanemaaijer, A. (2017), Circular Economy – Measuring innovation in the product chain, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague. [Online] Available at: pbl.nl/sites/default/files/downloads/pbl-2016-circular-economy-measuring-innovation-in-product-chains-2544.pdf [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Rigamonti, L., Biganzoli, L. and Grosso, M. (2019), “Packaging re-use – A starting point for its quantification”, in Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 35-43. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1007/s10163-018-0747-0 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Shedroff, N. (2009), Design is the problem – The future of design must be sustainable, Rosenfeld, New York.
Souza, C. D. P. and Sousa, C. S. M. (2019), “Perspectivas de design sobre reúso doméstico de embalagens de consumo”, in MIX Sustentável, vol. 5, issue 5, pp. 135-146. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.29183/2447-3073.MIX2019.v5.n5.135-146 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Stahel, W. (1981), Product-Life Factor (Mitchell Prize Winning Paper 1982). [Online] Available at: product-life.org/en/major-publications/the-product-life-factor [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Steenis, N. D., Herpen, E., Lans, I. A., Ligthart, T. N. and Trijp, H. C. M. (2017), “Consumer response to packaging design – The role of packaging materials and graphics in sustainability perceptions and product evaluations”, in Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 162, pp. 286-298. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.036 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Stewart, B. (2009), Estratégias de Design Para Embalagens, Blucher, São Paulo.
Streit, J. A. C., Guarnieri, P. and Batista, L. (2020), “Estado da arte em economia circular de embalagens – O que diz a literatura internacional?”, in Revista Metropolitana de Sustentabilidade, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 76-100. [Online] Available at: 220.127.116.11/index.php/rms/article/view/2299 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
UN – United Nations (n.d.), Sustainable Development Goal 12 – Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. [Online] Available at: sdgs.un.org/goals/goal12/ [Accessed 30 March 2021].
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme (2018), Single-use plastics – A Roadmap for sustainability. [Online] Available at: unep.org/resources/report/single-use-plastics-roadmap-sustainability [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Vosgerau, D. S. R. and Romanowski, J. P. (2014), “Estudos de revisão – Implicações conceituais e metodológicas”, in Revista Diálogo Educacional, vol. 14, issue 41, pp. 165-189. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.7213/dialogo.educ.14.041.DS08 [Accessed 30 March 2021].
Copyright (c) 2021 Cyntia Santos Malaguti de Sousa, Caio Dutra Profirio de Souza
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This Journal is published under Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC-BY).
License scheme | Legal code
This License allows anyone to:
Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms
Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.
No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.