Design and innovation for the Cultural Heritage. Phygital connections for a Heritage of proximity

  • Eleonora Lupo Politecnico di Milano (Italy)
Keywords: design for the innovation of the cultural heritage, phygital, heritage continuum, activation, proximity

Abstract

The article presents reflections in the field of design for the Cultural Heritage within the ‘phygital’ scenario, in which the physical-analogical world converges and interacts with the virtual-digital world in a new fluid space. This condition has a significant impact on the cultural Heritage, both on its nature and definition and its accessibility and experience, as it becomes an indivisible continuum of tangible and intangible elements extended and connected in time and space. The potential of new technologies makes it possible to create significant connections between the Heritage, the users and the stakeholders, in a hybrid spatial dimension of both physical and metaphorical proximity. Design culture responds to these transformations (and to the need for new ways to relate to, become involved with and connect deeply with the Heritage, partly in response to the post-pandemic crisis) with an innovative approach to culture-driven technology. Defined as ‘culture-driven innovation’, it aims to innovate the user experience and hence the experience of designing with the Heritage, through the co-creation of augmented and amplified narratives, participatory and contributory co-curatorial practices, as well as performance practices and the creative re-use of the cultural Heritage.

Author Biography

Eleonora Lupo, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

Designer and PhD, she is an Associate Professor at the Department of Design. She works mainly on Humanities Driven Innovation, product and process design cultures and Design for Cultural Heritage. She has been Visiting Professor in different Design Schools in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, China and coordinates and participates in several competitively funded national and international research projects.
E-mail: eleonora.lupo@polimi.it

References

Affleck, J. and Kvan, T. (2007), “Memory Capsules – Discursive Interpretation of Cultural Heritage through New Media”, in Kalay, Y. E., Kvan, T. and Affleck, J. (eds), New Heritage – New Media and Cultural Heritage, Routledge, London, pp. 92-111. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4324/9780203937884 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Agostino, D., Arnaboldi, M. and Lampis, A. (2020), “Italian state museums during the Covid-19 crisis – From onsite closure to online openness”, in Museum Management and Curatorship, vol. 35, issue 4, pp. 362-372. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/09647775.2020.1790029 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Allen, J. and Lupo, E. (eds) (2012), Representing Museum Technologies, Politecnico di Milano, Milano. [Online] Available at: mela-project.polimi.it/publications/951.htm [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Andrade, J. G. and Dias, P. (2020), “A phygital approach to cultural heritage – Augmented reality at Regaleira”, in Virtual Archaeology Review, vol. 11, issue 22, pp. 15-25. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4995/var.2020.11663 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Ballina, F. J., Valdes, L. and Del Valle, E. (2019), “The Phygital experience in the smart tourism destination”, in International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5, issue 4, pp. 656-671. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-11-2018-0088 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Batchelor, D., Schnabel, M. A. and Dudding, M. (2021), “Smart Heritage – Defining the Discourse”, in Heritage, vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 1005-1015. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3390/heritage4020055 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Battesti, J. (ed.) (2012), Que reste-t-il du présent? Collecter le contemporain dans les musées du société, Le Festin, Bordeaux.

Bertacchini, E., Nuccio, M. and Durio, A. (2019), “Proximity tourism and cultural amenities”, in Tourism Economics, vol. 27, issue 1, pp. 187-204. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1177/1354816619890230 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Bertola, P. and Manzini, E. (eds) (2004), Design multiverso – Appunti di Fenomenologia del design, Poli.Design, Milano.

Borowiecki, K. J., Forbes, N. and Fresa, A. (eds) (2016), Cultural Heritage in a Changing World, Springer, Cham. [Online] Available at: springer.com/gp/book/9783319295428 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Capurro, R. and Lupo, E. (eds) (2016), Designing Multivocal Museums – Intercultural practices at Museo Diocesano Milano, Politecnico di Milano, Milano. [Online] Available at: mela-project.polimi.it/publications/static-001.htm [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Celaschi, F. and Trocchianesi, R. (2004), Design & Beni culturali – La cultura del progetto nella valorizzazione dei Beni culturali, Poli.Design, Milano.

Colombo, M. E. (2020), Musei e cultura digitale – Fra narrativa, pratiche e testimonianze, Editrice Bibliografica, Milano.

Corte-Real, E., Duarte, A. M. C. and Carvallo Rodrigues, F. (eds) (2005), Pride and predesign – The Cultural Heritage and the science of design, CUMULUS and IADE – School of Design, Lisbona.

Dernie, D. (2006), Exhibition Design, Laurence King Publishing, London.

Dourish, P. (2001), Where the Action Is – The Foundations of Embodied Interaction, The MIT Press, Cambridge (MA).

European Commission (2019), European Framework for Action on Cultural Heritage. [Online] Available at: op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5a9c3144-80f1-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

European Commission (2018a), Strategic framework for the EU’s cultural policy. [Online] Available at: ec.europa.eu/culture/policies/strategic-framework-eus-cultural-policy [Accessed 23 September 2021].

European Commission (2018b), Council conclusions on the Work Plan for Culture 2019-2022, document 52018XG1221(01). [Online] Available at: eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52018XG1221%2801%29 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

European Commission (2018c), Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A new European Agenda for Culture, COM/2018/267 final, document 52018DC0267. [Online] Available at: eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2018:267:FIN [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Freeman, A., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., McKelroy, E., Giesinger, C. and Yuhnke, B. (2016), Horizon Report – 2016 Museum Edition, NMC – The New Media Consortium, Austin (Texas). [Online] Available at: ecsite.eu/activities-and-services/resources/horizon-report-2016-museum-edition [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Furth, B. (ed.) (2011), Handbook of Augmented Reality, Springer, Cham. [Online] Available at: springer.com/gp/book/9781461400639 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Galani, A. and Kidd, J. (2020), “Hybrid Material Encounters – Expanding the Continuum of Museum Materialities in the Wake of a Pandemic”, in Museum & Society, vol. 18, issue 3, pp. 298-301. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.29311/mas.v18i3.3565 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Giaccardi, E. (2015), “Designing the Connected Everyday”, in Interaction, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 26-31. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1145/2692982 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Giaccardi, E. (ed.) (2012), Heritage and Social Media – Understanding Heritage in a Participatory Culture, Routledge, London and New York.

Giaccardi, E. and Redström, J. (2020), “Technology and more than-human design”, in Design Issues, vol. 36, issue 4, pp. 33-44. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1162/desi_a_00612 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Hooper-Greenhill, E. (2003), “Interpretive communities, strategies and repertoires”, in Watson, S. (ed.), Museums and their communities, Routledge, London, pp. 76-94.

Hornecker, E. and Buur, J. (2006), “Getting a grip on tangible interaction – A frame work on physical space and social interaction”, in CHI ’06 – Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montréal Québec Canada, April 22-27, 2006, ACM Press, pp. 437-446. [Online] Available at. doi.org/10.1145/1124772.1124838 [Accessed 12 October 2021].

Hornecker, E. and Ciolfi, L. (2019), Human-Computer Interactions in Museums, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, San Rafael (CA). [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.2200/S00901ED1V01Y201902HCI042 [Accessed 12 October 2021].

Irace, F. (ed.) (2013), Design & Cultural Heritage, Mondadori Electa, Milano.

Jelinčić, D. A. (2017), Innovations in Culture and Development – The Culturinno Effect in Public Policy, Springer, Cham. [Online] Available at: link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-52721-5 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Kalay, Y. E., Kvan, T. and Affleck, J. (eds), New Heritage – New Media and Cultural Heritage, Routledge, London. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4324/9780203937884 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Kidd, J. (2014), Museums in the New Mediascape – Transmedia, Participation, Ethics, Ashgate, Farnham.

Kirshenblatt-gimblett, B. (2014), “Intangible heritage as metacultural production”, in Museum International, vol. 66, issue 1-4, pp. 163-174. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1111/muse.12070 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Kreps, C. (2008), “Indigenous curation, museums, and intangible cultural heritage”, in Smith, L. and Akagawa, N. (eds), Intangible Heritage, Routledge, London. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4324/9780203884973 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Kreps, C. (2003), Liberating culture – Cross-cultural Perspective on Museums, Curation and Heritage Preservation, Routledge, London.

Krumm, J., Davies, N. and Narayanaswami, C. (2008), “User-generated contents”, in Pervasive Computing, vol. 7, issue 4, pp. 10-11. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1109/MPRV.2008.85 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Lo Turco, M. and Giovannini, E. C. (2020), “Towards a phygital heritage approach for museum collection”, in Journal of Archaeological Science | Reports, vol. 34, part A. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102639 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Lokesha, V. B., Banumathi, D. and Bhagya, R. (2020), “Progressing with extended reality”, in Journal of Critical Reviews, vol. 7, issue 18, pp. 1405-1411. [Online] Available at: jcreview.com/?mno=95809 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Lord, G. D. and Blankenberg, N. (2005), Cities, Museums and Soft Power, The AAM Press, Washington.

Lupo, E. (2009), Il design per i Beni culturali – Pratiche e processi innovativi di valorizzazione, FrancoAngeli, Milano.

Lupo, E., Giunta, E. and Trocchianesi, R. (2011), “Design research and cultural heritage – Activating the value of cultural assets as open-ended knowledge system”, in Design Principles and Practices Journal, vol. 5, issue 6, pp. 431-450. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.18848/1833-1874/CGP/v05i06/38227 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Maffei, S. M., Parente, M. and Villari, B. (eds) (2006), SDI Design Review 03 – Il design per la valorizzazione dei beni culturali – Le premesse fondative della ricerca d.Cult, Poli.Design, Milano.

Manzini, E. (2006), “Design culture and dialogic design”, in Design Issues, vol. 32, issue 1, pp. 52-59. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1162/DESI_a_00364 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Marshall, P. and Hornecker, E. (2013), “Theories of Embodiment in HCI”, in Price, S., Jewitt, C. and Brown, B. (eds), The Sage Handbook of Digital Technology Research, Sage Publications, Los Angeles.

Natal, D., Corcuera, A., Carruesco, F. and Alonso, J. (2017), Consumer Engagement Trends For 2017. [Online] Available at: ideasen.llorenteycuenca.com/2016/12/19/consumer-engagement-trends-for-2017/ [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Neuburger, L., Beck, J. and Egger, R. (2018), “The ‘Phygital’ Tourist Experience – The Use of Augmented and Virtual Reality in Destination Marketing”, in Camilleri, M. A. (ed.), Tourism Planning and Destination Marketing, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley (UK), pp. 183-202. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78756-291-220181009 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Nielsen, J. (2014), “Transformations in the Postmodern Museum”, in Museological Review, issue 18, pp. 22-29. [Online] Available at: le.ac.uk/museum-studies/about/journals/museological-review [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Nofal, E., Reffat, R. M. and Vande Moere, A. (2017), “Phygital heritage – An approach for heritage communication”, in The 3rd Annual International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN2017), Coimbra, Portugal, 26-29 June 2017, pp. 220-229. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3217/978-3-85125-530-0-36 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Parry, R. (ed.) (2013), Museum in a digital age, Routledge, Londra.

Porter, M. E. (2006), Strategy for museums, presentation at the American Alliance of Museums Annual Meeting, Boston (MA), April 28, 2006. [Online] Available at: hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=46839 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Rantala, O., Salmela, T., Valtonen, A. and Höckert, E. (2020), “Envisioning Tourism and Proximity after the Anthropocene”, in Sustainability, vol. 12, issue 10, 3948. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3390/su12103948 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Romagosa, F. (2020), “The Covid-19 crisis – Opportunities for sustainable and proximity tourism”, in Tourism Geographies – An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 690-694. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763447 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Russo, A., Watkins, J., Kelly, L. and Chan, S. (2007), “Social media and cultural interactive experiences in museums”, in Nordisk Museologi, issue 1, pp. 19-29. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.5617/nm.3255 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Sacco, P. L. and Travkina, E. (2020), Culture Shock – Covid-19 and the cultural and creative sector, OECD. [Online] Available at: oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/culture-shock-covid-19-and-the-cultural-and-creative-sectors-08da9e0e/ [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Salmela, T., Nevala, H., Nousiainen, M. and Rantala, O. (2021), “Proximity tourism – A thematic literature review”, in Matkailututkimus | Finnish Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 46-63. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.33351/mt.107997 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Sanders, E. B. N. and Stapper, P. J. (2008), “Co-creation and the new landscape of design”, in Co-design – International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 5-18. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/15710880701875068 [Accessed 11 October 2021].

Shaer, O. and Hornecker, E. (2010), “Tangible User Interfaces – Past, Present, and Future Directions”, in Foundations and Trends® in Human–Computer Interaction, vol. 3, n. 1-2, pp. 4-137. [Online] Available at: dx.doi.org/10.1561/1100000026 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Shiach, M. and Virani, T. (eds) (2017), Cultural Policy, Innovation and the Creative Economy, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Simon, N. (2010), The Participatory Museum, Museum 2.0, Santa Cruz. [Online] Available at: participatorymuseum.org/ [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Smith, R. C. and Iversen, O. S. (2014), “Participatory Heritage Innovation – Designing Dialogic Sites of Engagement”, in Digital Creativity Journal, vol. 25, issue 3, pp. 255-268. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/14626268.2014.904796 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Sonkoly, G. and Vahtikari, T. (2018), Innovation in Cultural Heritage research – For an integrated European research policy, European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. [Online] Available at: op.europa.eu/it/publication-detail/-/publication/1dd62bd1-2216-11e8-ac73-01aa75ed71a1 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Spallazzo, D. (2012), Mobile Technologies and Cultural Heritage – Towards a design approach, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken.

Steiner, C. (2010), “From heritage to hyper-reality? Tourism destination development in the Middle East between Petra and the Palm”, in Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol. 8, issue 4, pp. 240-253. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2010.521245 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Studio Azzurro (ed.) (2011), Musei di narrazione – Percorsi interattivi e affreschi multimediali, Silvana Editoriale, Milano.

Tchen, J. K. W. and Ševcenko, L. (2011), “The ‘dialogic museum’ revisited – A collaborative reflection”, in Adair, B., Filene, B. and Koloski, L. (eds), Letting go – Sharing Historical Authority in a User-Generated World, The Pew Center for Arts & Heritage, Philadelphia, pp. 80-89.

UNESCO (2019), Culture | 2030 Indicators. [Online] Available at: unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000371562 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Vecco, M. (2010), “A definition of cultural heritage – From the tangible to the intangible”, in Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol. 11, issue 3, pp. 321-324. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2010.01.006 [Accessed 23 September 2021].

Visser, J. and Richardson, J. (2013), Digital Engagement in Culture, Heritage and the Arts. [Online] Available at: digitalengagementframework.com [Accessed 23 September 2021].

To the East – Genti e Dei alle Vie della Seta, Terme di Diocleziano, Roma, 2011 (credits: Studio Azzurro). AGATHÓN 10 | 2021
Published
2021-12-31
How to Cite
Lupo, E. (2021) “Design and innovation for the Cultural Heritage. Phygital connections for a Heritage of proximity”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 10(online), pp. 186-199. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/10172021.
Section
Design | Essays & Viewpoint
Share |