Botanical concrete. Experimentation on concrete substrates for vertical greening

  • Lucas Büscher University of Kassel (Germany)
  • Roman Polster University of Kassel (Germany)
  • Heike Klussmann University of Kassel (Germany)
Keywords: vertical greening, concrete substrate, living concrete, green infrastructure, bio-receptivity


Botanical Concrete collaboratively investigates a fundamentally new approach to wall-based vertical greening systems, based on design thinking, materials research and phytotechnology, to functionalize concrete and allow the permanent establishment of cryptogams and tracheophytes on its surface, two species with different substrate demands requiring two different sets of parameters for functionalisation. Combining the results of research into cryptogams and tracheophytes produces a novel, resource-conserving approach to vertical greening, able to take advantage of the impermeable surfaces commonly found in built space to establish vegetation, improve local microclimates, increase urban biodiversity, and create new biotopes.

Author Biographies

Lucas Büscher, University of Kassel (Germany)

Horticulturist, he is a Research Associate at the Department of Landscape Architecture/Technology. In his PhD thesis ‘concrete habitat’ he focuses on the functionalisation of concrete and its surface in the context of vertical green, targeted vegetation and vegetation dynamic and substrate development.

Roman Polster, University of Kassel (Germany)

Urban Planner, he is a Research Associate at the research group Bau Kunst Erfinden. His research centres on architectural engineering and the development of smart materials for the building and construction industry. In his PhD thesis, he focuses on the functionalisation of concrete and its surface in the context of vertical green and targeted greening.

Heike Klussmann, University of Kassel (Germany)

Professor of Art and Architecture, she directs the research group Bau Kunst Erfinden, which is dedicated to the development of innovative materials systems at the convergence of art, architecture and new technologies. She has taught and conducted research at the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena and the Monash University, Melbourne (Australia).


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3D-printed form liner for creating punctiform recesses (credit: L. Büscher, 2021). AGATHÓN 11 | 2022
How to Cite
Büscher, L., Polster, R. and Klussmann, H. (2022) “Botanical concrete. Experimentation on concrete substrates for vertical greening”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 11(online), pp. 266-273. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/11242022.
Architecture | Research & Experimentation
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