Climate change in reclamation landscapes – Adaptation between module and modularity


  • Carla Brisotto University of Florida (USA)
  • Jeff Carney University of Florida (USA)
  • Ina Macaione University of Basilicata (Italy)
  • Alessandro Raffa University of Basilicata (Italy)



reclamation landscapes, climate change, module, modularity, design


Modern drainage of wetlands has produced landscapes that are expressions of a productive view of natural space. These landscapes result from a profound environmental transformation driven by economic, social, health, and cultural reasons. Today, these autonomous territorial machines face the effects of climate change, a challenge that will require significant changes and a paradigm shift leading to new ecologies and aesthetics. Through an unexplored comparison of reclamation landscapes between the Everglades, Florida (US) and Metaponto, Basilicata (Italy), this contribution reflects on the limits and possibilities of adaptation through the concepts of module and modularity. The emerging themes will inform future methodological and operational experimentations for adapting modern reclamation landscapes to climate change.


Article info

Received: 10/09/2023; Revised: 18/10/2023; Accepted: 30/10/2023


Download data is not yet available.

Article Metrics Graph

Author Biographies

Carla Brisotto, University of Florida (USA)

Architect and PhD, she is an Assistant Director at the Florida Institute for Built Environment Resilience (FIBER), an Assistant Scholar at the School of Architecture, and a member of the Florida Resilient Cities Lab. Her research focuses on the intersection between urban settlements and agricultural ecosystems.

Jeff Carney, University of Florida (USA)

Architect, Urban Planner, and MCP, he is an Associate Professor at the School of Architecture and Director of the Florida Institute for Built Environment Resilience (FIBER). He specializes in the urban design of housing systems with particular attention to adaptation to climate change.

Ina Macaione, University of Basilicata (Italy)

Architect, she is an Associate Professor at the Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures, Architecture Environment and Cultural Heritage (DiCEM). Scientific Coordinator of NatureCityLAB, she carries out research in urban regeneration, landscape and public space design from an eco-sustainable perspective.

Alessandro Raffa, University of Basilicata (Italy)

Architect and PhD, he is an Assistant Professor PON R&I – FSE REACT-EU at the Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures (DiCEM). He is currently a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at FIBER, University of Florida, conducting research activities within nature-based urban design for climate adaptation.


Baptist, M., van Hattum, T., Reinhard, S., van Buuren, M., de Rooij, B., Hu, X., van Rooij, S., Polman, N., van den Burg, S., Piet, G., Ysebaert, T., Walles, B., Veraart, J., Wamelink, W., Bregman, B., Bos, B. and Selnes, T. (2019), A nature-based future for the Netherlands in 2120, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Baldwin, M. (2020), “Peat / Land – Strategies for Restoration, Design, and Planning of North Carolina Peatlands”, in 2020 ASLA Student Awards. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Bentivenga, M., Giano, S. I. and Piccarreta, M. (2020), “Recent Increase of Flood Frequency in the Ionian Belt of Basilicata Region, Southern Italy – Human or Climate Change?”, in Water, vol. 12, issue 7, article 2062, pp. 1-18. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Berger, A. (2009), Systemic Design can change the World, SUN Publishers, Amsterdam.

Berger, A., Brown, C., Kousky, C. and Zeckhauser, R. (2010), “The Five Neglects – Risks Gone Amiss”, in Kunreuther, H. and Useem, M. (eds), Learning from Catastrophes – Strategies for Reaction and Response, Wharton School Publishing, Upper Saddle River (NJ), pp. 83-99. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Brisotto, C. and Carney, J. (2022), “Co-design strategies to achieve trust in Urban Living Lab – A systematic literature review”, in Jarret, C. and Sharag-Eldin, A. (eds), Proceedings of the ARCC-EAAE International Conference in Miami, Miami, Florida, US, March 2-5, 2022, Architectural Research Centers Consortium, pp. 137-144. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Cataldo, S., Copiz, R., Lorito, A., Magaudda, S., Parente, S., Perotto, C. and Valle, N. (eds) (2014), Rewetland – Un programma di area vasta per riqualificare le acque superficiali dell’Agro Pontino con le tecniche di fitodepurazione, Edizioni Belvedere, Latina. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Central and Southern Florida Project Everglades Agricultural Area Storage Reservoirs (2005), Draft Integrated Project Implementation Report – Environmental Impact Statement – Annexes and Appendices.

Corboz, A. (1998), Ordine sparso – Saggi sull’arte, il metodo, la città e il territorio, FrancoAngeli, Milano.

Corner, J. (1997), “Ecology and landscape as agents of creativity”, in Thomson, G. F. and Steiner, F. R. (eds), Ecological Design and Planning, John Wiley & Son, New York, pp. 81-107.

Davidová, M., Barath, S. and Dickinson, S. (2023), “Ambienti culturali con prospettive non solo umane – Prototipazione attraverso ricerca e formazione | Cultural environments with more-than-human perspectives – Prototyping through research and training”, in Agathón | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, vol. 13, pp. 165-178. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Davidson, N. C. (2014), “How Much Wetland Has the World Lost? Long Term and Recent Trends in Global Wetland Area”, in Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 65, pp. 934-941. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Eco, U. (1962), Opera Aperta – Forma e Indeterminazione nelle poetiche contemporanee, Bompiani, Milano. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Fluet-Chouinard, E., Stocker, B. D., Zhang, Z., Malhotra, A., Melton, J. R., Poulter, B., Kaplan, J. O., Goldewijk, K. K., Siebert, S., Minayeva, T., Hugelius, G., Joosten, H., Barthelmes, A., Prigent, C., Aires, F., Hoyt, A. M., Davidson, N., Finlayson, C. M., Lehner, B., Jackson R. B. and McIntyre, P. B. (2023), “Extensive global wetland loss over the past three centuries”, in Nature, vol. 614, pp. 281-286. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

González-Campaña, J., Lafaurie-Debany, N. and Rabazo Martin, M. (2023), “Realizzare paesaggi innovativi – Balmori Associaties ridefinisce il rapporto uomo-natura per le città del futuro | Making innovative landscapes – Balmori Associates redefining the human-nature relationship for the cities of the future”, in Agathón | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, vol. 13, pp. 31-42. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2023].

Kharrazi, A., Yu, Y., Jacob, A., Vora, N. and Fath, B. D. (2020), “Redundancy, Diversity, and Modularity in Network Resilience”, in Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 2, article 100006, pp. 1-7. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Gausa, M. (2022), “Topologie verdi e paesaggi oltre il paesaggio – 30 anni di ricerche sulla ibridizzazione del verde | Green topopologies and landscapes beyond the land – A 30-year research on green hybridization”, in Agathón | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, vol. 11, pp. 14-25. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Ingebritsen, S. E., McVoy, C., Glaz, B. and Park, W. (1999), “Florida Everglades – Subsidence threatens agriculture and complicates ecosystem restoration”, in Galloway, D., Jones, D. R. and Ingebritsen, S. E. (eds), Land Subsidence in the United States, U.S. Geological Survey, circular 1182, pp. 95-106. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Ingold, T. (2008), “Bindings against Boundaries – Entanglements of Life in an Open World”, in Environment and Planning A – Economy and Space, vol. 40, issue 8, pp. 1796-1810. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Marshall, R. A., Pielke, R. and Steyaert, L. (2003), “Wetlands – Crop freezes and land-use change in Florida”, in Nature, vol. 426, pp. 29-30. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Morin, E. (2000), La testa ben fatta – Riforma dell’insegnamento e riforma del pensiero, Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano.

Nicolescu, B. (2002), Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Ojane, P. and Minkinnen, K. (2020), “Rewetting offers rapid climate benefits for tropical and agricultural peatlands but not for forestry-drained peatlands”, in Global Biochemical Cycle, vol. 34, issue 7, pp. 1-16. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Pakalne, M., Etzold, J., Llomets, M., Jarašius, L., Pawlaczyk, P., Bociang, K., Chlost, R., Gos, K., Libaures, K., Pajula, R., Purre, A. H., Sendzikaite, J., Strazdina, L., Truus, L., Zableckis, N., Jurema, L. and Kirschey, T. (2021), Best Practice Book for Peatland Restoration and Climate Change Mitigation – Experiences from LIFE Peat Restore Project, University of Latvia, Riga. [Online] Available at: Practice_Book_for_Peatland_Restoration_and_Climate_Change_Mitigation_- _Experiences_from_LIFE_Peat_Restore_Project [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Percoco, A. (2010), Policoro – Da villaggio di bonifica a centro ordinatore del Metapontino, Consiglio Regionale della Basilicata, Potenza. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Renes, H. (2018), “New Nature in Old Landscapes – Some Dutch Examples of the relation between History, Heritage and Ecological Restoration”, in Environmental Values, vol. 27, issue 4, pp. 351-375. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Richardson, C. J. (2008), “The Everglades – North America’s Subtropical wetland”, in Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 18, issue 5, pp. 517-542. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Sklar, F. H, Chimney, M. J., Newman, S., McCornick, P., Gawlik, D., Miao, S. L., McVoy, C., Said, W., Newman, J., Coronado, C., Crozier, G., Korvela, M. and Rutchey, K. (2005), “The ecological-societal underpinning of Everglades restoration”, in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 161-169. [Online] Available at:[0161:TEUOER]2.0.CO;2 [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Temmink, R. J. M., Robroek, B. J. M., van Dijk, G., Koks, A., Käärmelahti, S., Barthelmes, A., Wassen, M., Ziegler, R., Stelee M., Giesen, W., Joosten, H., Fritz, C., Lamers, L. and Smolders, A. (2023), “Wetscapes – Restoring and maintaining peatland landscapes for sustainable futures”, in Ambio, vol. 52, pp. 1519-1528. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

UNESCO (1971), Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

van Bergeijk, H. and Piccinini, D. (2022), “Land-Nature and its Economic and Cultural Value – The Case of the Zuiderzee Reclamation”, in Brisotto, C. and Lemes de Oliveira, F. (eds), Re-Imagining Resilient Productive Landscapes Perspectives from Planning History, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 51-71. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Van Gerrewey, C. (2015), “Imagining the Dutch polder Landscape – A Design by OMA from 1986”, in Journal of Landscape Architecture, vol. 10, issue 3, pp. 20-27. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 October 2023].

Walker, B. and Salt, D. (2012), “A Resilient World”, in Walker, B. and Salt, D. (eds), Resilient Practice – Building Capacity to Absorb Disturbance and Maintain Function, Island Press, pp. 185-199.

Walker, B. and Salt, D. (2006), “Carving up a National Icon – The Florida Everglades”, in Walker, B. and Salt, D. (eds), Resilient Thinking – Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World, Island Press, pp. 15-27.

Module: EAA settlement infrastructure (credit: C. Brisotto and A. Raffa; source: Google Earth, 2023). AGATHÓN 14 | 2023




How to Cite

Brisotto, C., Carney, J., Macaione, I. and Raffa, A. (2023) “Climate change in reclamation landscapes – Adaptation between module and modularity”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 14, pp. 62–73. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/1442023.