AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span>&nbsp;Scientific International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (product and visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the Journal includes essays and research works on a specific theme, unpublished works and not submitted for publication with other publishers.<br>The Journal through its internal Board promotes and monitors the double-blind peer review process as a method of selecting articles, providing a mandatory form for reporting. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of international scientific community. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality/innovation, the relevance of the investigated topic for the advancement of knowledge, the knowledge and ability to use literature, the methodological rigour, the content clarity and presentation style, the impact on the scientific community, but also the easy accessibility and the wide diffusion of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles are inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and are classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p>AGATHÓN publishes, both electronically and in print, two issues per year, in June and December. The first issue was published in June 2017 and since then the programmed issues have been produced regularly.</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contribution <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer-review process.</p> en-US <p>This Journal is published under&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0</a>&nbsp;(CC-BY).<br><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src=""></a><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">License scheme</a>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Legal code</a><br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This License allows anyone to</span>:<br>Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.<br>Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Under the following terms</span><br>Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.<br>No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Notices</span><br>Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.<br>No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.</p> (Prof. Arch. Cesare Sposito) (Dott. Arch. PhD Francesca Scalisi) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Index | Colophon | Editorial Giuseppe De Giovanni Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Uncertainty, fragility, resilience <p>The consequences of climate change and the recurrent shortage of vital resources produce an extreme and growing fragility of all systems, both biological and technical, subjected to continuous and increasingly less predictable disturbances. In this perspective, the strategy that pretends to maintain static equilibrium at any cost is ineffective. Therefore, we look with attention at the adaptive approach, based on reactivity, ability to self-repair individual parts and fault tolerance, which has always enabled living organisms to survive in hostile contexts. This attitude of biological systems to adopt dynamic responses to the perturbative actions of their balance proves to be extraordinarily effective and intrinsically efficient, to the point of proposing itself as a paradigm to be inspired to organize even artificial systems.</p> Ernesto Antonini Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Resili(g)ence. Smart Cities / Resilient Landscape <p>The holistic approach to the contemporary city recalls the use of new complex and integrated techno-environmental tools and qualitative urban development policies, in positive synergy. Advanced, proactive and reactive responses, which move in a hybrid field: on the one hand prevention and mitigation of conflicts and urban-territorial stress situations, through the interconnection of systematized data; on the other the programming of strategic interventions, articulated in intertwined systems. The term Resili(g)ence combines ‘intelligent values’ (information, knowledge, projection and adaptation) with ‘resilient values’ (resistance and recycling, recovery, renewal or adaptation) in a new responsive, sensory, and sensitive condition.</p> Manuel Gausa Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Resilient Design. A synoptic framework <p>Design, the planning discipline targeted at products, services, and processes, has developed, in recent years, behaviours that are more aware of increasingly rapid changes, which concern both the models of production and consumption and those that regulate ecosystems – composed of individuals and communities. It acts to benefit ‘sustainability’ and ‘resilience’ on different scales and in multiple sectors, thanks also to its own identity, which distinguishes it as a kind of knowledge that connects humanities and technologies. It has learned to plan for what can place the system in crisis, developing collaborative actions to adapt to the internal causes such as exceeding the limits of development, migration, ageing, as well as mitigation regarding those external causes, such as natural disasters, even if these often depend on the first causes. This essay is intended to provide a wide panorama, almost a synoptic framework, of the contribution that Design can offer society in terms of ‘resistance’ and ‘resilience’, also considering critical events as an opportunity to evolve its orientations and practices.</p> Claudio Germak Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural landscapes. Artificial between resilience and natural selection <p>Over fourteen thousand and up to twelve thousand years ago, due to a serious food supply crisis, homo sapiens implemented a new model of survival based on agriculture, starting to sow, man became more sedentary. Nowadays, we rely on a new adaptation process to bring us closer to farm and craft activities, reviving small scale settlement systems. Knowing the peculiar features of a natural or urban artificial landscape and identifying in it with a feeling of belonging, as a place bearing culture and traditions, has always linked the human beings to their territory, to a geographical context. In the current global environmental crisis, the rural landscape is once again considered an asset for man, especially for its cultural and spiritual values, as a fundamental scenario to build individual and collective life. Therefore, for every human community, the whole landscape becomes a place where to reside, live, build, produce, sell, pass on, it participates in the whole cycle.</p> Marina Fumo Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Urban adaptation, strategies and projects. The gap between policies and their implementation <p>The increasing impacts of climate change are pushing cities to take paths towards adaptation and resilience. The adaptation, due to its systemic nature, is multi-scalar: at the urban scale (macro-level) it is implemented through plans and strategies; on the scale of urban and architectural design (meso/micro), these strategies are implemented with concrete interventions. However, the action of some cities perceives a gap between the different levels. Through the analysis of adaptation in the urban areas of Miami and Rotterdam, the article aims to examine the gap that often exists between the strategy and the implementation, and the need for coherence between these that guarantees a real process of urban transformation towards greater resilience stages through systemic approaches.</p> Guido Emilio Rossi Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 After the firmitas. A metabolist perspective of resilient architecture <p>Architecture has been built for millennia to stay the same – according to the Vitruvian firmitas. Instead, today it is oriented toward a dynamic adaptation to the changes in its context. The climate change is the most evident epiphenomenon among those that have imposed the new paradigms of resilience, the programmatic indeterminacy, the morphological flexibility, the open systemic approaches. Far from being a simple technical adaptation to new needs, the resilient architecture progressively clarifies its theoretical assumptions and its cultural derivations. A genealogical approach concerning the reformulation of some themes firstly introduced by Japanese Metabolism, helps to reframe its evolution and aims to contribute to the understanding of the formal definition of these new architectures.</p> Zeila Tesoriere Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptive Buenos Aires. Architecture between diversity and demand of modernity <p>In the 21st century, the processes linked to globalization bring significant changes to the way humans inhabit places influencing architectural design. The following essay presents the city of Buenos Aires as an example of Resilience towards cultural diversity and the demand for modernity proper to a global city. Three particular architectural phenomena can be identified – the rascacielo, the villa miseria and the chorizo house – architectures and spaces of the city capable of responding, more or less positively, to the changes brought by the new condition of global culture.</p> Francesco Casalbordino Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Dubai transient city. Anatomy of a post-urban phenomenon <p>In the global imaginary, Dubai is a fascinating and dynamic young metropolis projected to the future. Many urban planning proposals attempted to control its rapid expansion, boosted by oil discovery in 1966. John Harris, George Candilis, the Milan-based BBPR, Reima Pietilä and in more recent times Norman Foster, OMA and others presented proposals quickly outdated by its bursting urban development. Nowadays, the glittering lights of this city’s skyline quickly sprouted from the desert, advertise the daring image of a city in which reality and fiction are often merged. But what is concealed behind this amazing urban spectacle? Its very fast and uncontainable growth has generated massive phenomena of urban sprawl and proliferation of junk spaces. Hi-density zones are alternated to vast desert unbuilt areas, in a fragmented urban landscape that generates, in many European expats, a diffused estranging ‘uncanny’ feeling. In a city Non-City, where malls and hotels become the main social gathering centres, the urban structure is similar more to a dis-connection of Non-Places, elevated to the rank of urban landmarks. Shall Dubai demonstrate skills of resilience and urban regeneration, facing the nowadays fast and unpredictable transformations of the economic and geopolitical scenarios of the Gulf region? The essay aims to investigate the dynamics that led to the current dystopian scenario of the nowadays urban landscape of Dubai, proposing possible solutions to relieve the impact of the existing contradictions.</p> Tiziano Aglieri Rinella Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptive architecture as mediator between humans and earth <p>This paper describes the potential of adaptive architecture to mediate not only technically but also socially and aesthetically between humans and the environment. Compensating global change through architecture does not change human behaviour; the challenge is to involve and activate each inhabitant. By implementing the principle of adaptation in all dimensions, a step towards a healthy and resilient relationship between humans and earth can be taken. In this holistic approach, historical and contemporary projects in Architecture and Art are discussed and systemic, explorative, social and aesthetic perspectives are taken. As a mediator adaptive architecture makes a global system experienceable in the local, supports its inhabitants to improve their relationship to the Earth and adapt.</p> Marie Ulber, Mona Mahall Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Coastal floods in the Mediterranean. Trasformation strategies for resilient cities <p>The IPCC 2018 report represents the current state of knowledge on climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. One of the most direct consequences of these changes is represented by the raising of the sea-level, the topic on which the contribution lingers, highlighting how, to date, there is no declination, at the local planning level, of the content addresses in the sectoral tools responsible for managing the phenomenon. The contribution, starting from the results of a recent ENEA research, explores the territorial context of the Mediterranean, specifically the Italian area, to bring out some methodological and operational suggestions for the elaboration of some possible strategies for transforming urban contexts affected by flooding.</p> Carmela Mariano, Marsia Marino Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 European green capitals. Best practices for sustainable urban development <p>The contribution, summarizing the results of the research on Green Infrastructures and European Capitals, aims to set a reflection on the quality of cities and on the complex strategies to be pursued, both in terms of intervention scales (structural and process) and areas action (economic, environmental, social), to be implemented continuously over time and in compliance with the specificities of the contexts. With this work, it was intended to highlight how the European Union, in recent decades, has devoted increasing and considerable efforts in prefiguring sustainability objectives, fundamental to address the urban planning policies of individual cities, increasingly oriented to develop strategic plans that pursue a development intelligent and sustainable urban development.</p> Andrea Iacomoni Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Trento, which kind of future? Perspectives for a resilient city <p>Cities and their surroundings are excellent case studies and inexhaustible testing grounds as they require constant adaptations and revisions; mutable environments where it is possible to experiment new approaches and paradigm changes, in order to demonstrate that it is possible to turn the direction towards less disturbing and more profitable scenarios from the environmental and socio-economic standpoints. In this sense, the research task of the Trento Urban Transformation Research Unit (TUT) is to review the perspectives of the Trento Urban Plan according to public and private stakeholder, to record and propose alternative scenarios towards a more Resilient direction. Among the challenges that the Strategic Plan need to address there is a specific category devoted to the performative outlook of the city concerning the ecological imprinting. This category includes strategies for landscape design approaches capable of tackling the challenges posed by our contemporary era.</p> Matteo Aimini Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Living with emergency. Design for an adaptive settlement in Belén, Iquitos <p>This paper presents a design for a district of the city of Iquitos, developed based on research by the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú and supported by the Centro Interuniveristario de Desarollo Academico exchange programme. The case study’s interest is in the conditions of environmental stress to which the district is subject due to seasonal variations in the water level of the river that runs through it. Under these circumstances, the inhabitants have spontaneously developed resilient settlement strategies which, however, are not sufficient to deal with the serious health and sanitary problems that exist there. The paper demonstrates how, in such situations, it is possible to propose adaptive design solutions which are in keeping with local practices and therefore easily reproducible.</p> Belen Desmaison, Linda Buondonno, Giulia Viola, Andrea Giachetta Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Interpreting public space as a medium for urban liveability <p>The emphasis placed on urban living issues concerning public space seems well-founded based on the many spatial, environmental, social and psychological effects connected the processes of urban transformation. The liveability of the contemporary cities cannot ignore the features of quality and diversity of the system of public spaces, intended here as an infrastructure capable of connecting places and people, goods and services in continuous flow. This contribution highlights the need for tools able to interpreting the ever-changing physical and social demands of contemporary public space and propose an interpretative cognitive model to support to Public Administrations order to better orient urban transformation and regeneration strategies and goals.</p> Alberto De Capua, Lidia Errante Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of the urban vegetation on thermal dissipation and gaseous pollutants <p>In the urban environment, resilience is a result of the shocks caused by pollution, noise and changes in land usage, through the process of ‘artificialization’, typical of the process of building a city. Since the city is unthinkable without natural elements, therefore, it is important to study the tolerance to the ‘denaturalization’ urban system. The main objective of the article is to determine the benefits of urban vegetation on thermal dissipation and gaseous pollutants. From studies carried out in 13 parks located in Lima (Peru), from four monitoring stations (with or without vegetation), temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and gaseous pollutants&nbsp; are measured. The outcomes show significant differences on thermal dissipation and relative humidity, allowing to confirm that urban vegetation plays an important role in reaching increasingly sustainable levels at city scale.</p> Teresa Milagros Defilippi Shinzato, Alexis Dueñas, Julián Ccasani, Vanessa García, Gianinna Morales Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Resilience requirements. Adaptive methodology for the housing emergency <p>The exposure to many risk factors related to climate change, scarcity of resources, migration and a critical economic situation place cities under constant stress and instability. Therefore, increasing their resilience is required. Arup developed the City Resilience Framework for the 100 Resilient Cities project. This framework places housing among the action sectors to enhance resilience. This analysis borrows best practices for resiliency from case study analyses while investigating how architecture can contribute to the Framework. It then proposes a meta-design tool in the form of Design Technical Data Sheets. These are meant to support the actors involved in design processes with resilience-oriented design and procedural guidelines.</p> Ilaria Montella Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Indications for low-cost sustainability in Egyptian residential construction <p>Although sustainable building techniques and materials have always been used in the residential sector in Egypt, the calls for strategies to implement more environmentally friendly ways of the building have been rising. The study presents considerations on how and what can be done to make a sustainable and at the same time affordable design, not only with highly sophisticated systems; analyses the suburbs surrounding Cairo, describes case studies that have shown environmentally friendly solutions and concludes with a synoptic framework for affordable environmentally sustainable strategies which can be used for the housing sector.</p> Karim Kesseiba, Mennat-Allah El-Husseiny Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adaptive design strategies for buildings’ retrofit in response to climate change <p>The urban temperature raising related to climate change on-going phenomenons as a consequence of greenhouse gas concentration’s increasing, the performance flaws of Italian construction, particularly of the one built between ‘70s and ‘90s, the technological progress of technical solutions and research in the field of architecture-related digital technology, have stimulated the development of a methodology based on computational design and data exchange IT tools for buildings’ energy simulation and the definition of interventions of energy and technology retrofit aimed towards adaption and mitigation according to climatic scenarios. This contribution is focused on the experimentation of a simulative approach, based on the use of parametric software for outlining interventions of energy and technology retrofit for buildings, through a methodology replicable for urban and building regeneration actions for mitigation and climate adaption.</p> Giulio Davino, Eduardo Bassolino Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adapting humanitarian emergency architecture for street children outreach campaigns <p>The architectural research offers a few solutions for the outreach campaign addressed to the street children phenomenon, although it is crucial. In a lot of cases, the solutions adopted can benefit from the architectural applications used for humanitarian emergencies. This contribution investigates the possible guidelines for the design of mobile applications to be used in outreach campaigns addressed to street children, through a review of the International literature, an analysis of the Egyptian context and a qualitative study of street children outreach structures and those ones for humanitarian emergency.</p> Ruba Azzam, Ahmed AbdelGhaffar, Karim Kesseiba, Mennat-Allah El-Husseiny Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Three case studies in virtual preservation. Applying virtual reality to Cultural Heritage <p>The paper documents three case studies researching the techniques of Virtual Preservation upon various Cultural Heritage sites in order to preserve material aspects that, in the near future, can be irreparably damaged by the impact of climate change. Through the use of 3D scanners, photogrammetry, virtual and reality, and rendering software, the study documents how emerging technologies may be used together to digitally recreate full-scale Cultural Assets, for digital exhibition and archival. Although Virtual Preservation demands a substantial change of established working methods and tools, the paper argues that the realism obtained can compensate for the loss of the material of the Asset and still allow future generations to experience Cultural Heritage sites. The article concludes on illustrating the limitations and strengths of the study and foreseeing that Virtual Preservation can help experts to establish guidelines integrating virtual reality into traditional practice.</p> Kai Reaver Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Design and microalgae. Sustainable systems for cities <p>New practices linked to biological sciences are emerging in the world of design and architecture. In recent years various interventions have involved the use of living organisms and biomaterials even in an urban context. This essay analyzes those projects that have entailed the use of microalgae, tracing their limits and possibilities. The guidelines for the implementation of similar projects at the level of products or small installations are also defined. From the perspective of designing for the benefit of citizens and given the countless properties of microalgae, solutions of this kind and innovative integrated services could be a way to mitigate the environmental, but also social and economic problems, of present and future cities.</p> Pier Paolo Peruccio, Maurizio Vrenna Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Waste valuing from urban wood management through design. Ideas from the case of Sãn Paulo <p>As cities grow, urban afforestation becomes more important both for aesthetics and environmental reasons. Nevertheless, pruning and removal of fallen trees, demand a waste management system, not easy to deal with, especially in big tropical cities, such as São Paulo, in Brazil. On the other hand, part of this waste could be employed in wooden artefacts production, reducing the pressure on the forests, in a circular economy and systemic design approach – the main hypothesis of ongoing research at the University of São Paulo. This paper presents the existing problem, the theoretical foundations upon which the study was built, the findings of an international scientific literature review that looked for successful experiences and how the design was involved; and suggests further researches.</p> Cyntia Malaguti de Sousa Copyright (c) Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000