AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design <p><strong>AGATHÓN</strong> is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Open Access</span>&nbsp;Scientific International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, a half-year tool for information and critical training; it aims to contribute to the growth and dissemination of knowledge in the themes covered by Architecture, Engineering, Art and (product and visual) Design. Therefore, the Journal represents a scientific place where Authors, who have carried out original research, can find an opportunity to spread their contributions. Each issue of the Journal includes essays and research works on a specific theme, unpublished works and not submitted for publication with other publishers.<br>The Journal through its internal Board promotes and monitors the double-blind peer review process as a method of selecting articles, providing a mandatory form for reporting. The contributions will be published in English and Italian language so that they can be placed in the widest range of international scientific community. Founding principles of the Journal are the originality/innovation, the relevance of the investigated topic for the advancement of knowledge, the knowledge and ability to use literature, the methodological rigour, the content clarity and presentation style, the impact on the scientific community, but also the easy accessibility and the wide diffusion of the articles; furthermore, the Journal is open to speculative empirical and descriptive research, about phenomena that present new characters, at least for certain important features.</p> <p><strong>SECTIONS OF THE JOURNAL </strong>| Published articles are inserted in one of the following sections:<br>"Focus" (by invitation for well-known Authors and/or experts in the subject)<br>"Architecture" (architectural and interior design, urban planning, engineering, technology, history, recovery, restoration, exhibition and museum design, representation)<br>"Art" (modern and contemporary)<br>"Design" (for industry, crafts and communication)<br>and are classified into the following categories: "Essays &amp; Viewpoint", "Research &amp; Experimentation", "Review Articles" or "Dialogues".</p> <p>AGATHÓN publishes, both electronically and in print, two issues per year, in June and December. The first issue was published in June 2017 and since then the programmed issues have been produced regularly.</p> <p class="p1">To encourage the publication of contributions by Authors with primary affiliation to Universities and Research Institutions in countries defined by the World Bank as <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">low-income and lower-middle income economies</a>, AGATHÓN selects a maximum of two Authors to publish their contribution <span class="s1">for free</span>, subject to the positive outcome of the double-blind peer-review process.</p> Palermo University Press – New Digital Frontiers Srl (Publisher) | DEMETRA Ce.Ri.Med. (Promoter) en-US AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design 2464-9309 <p>This Journal is published under&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0</a>&nbsp;(CC-BY).<br><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src=""></a><br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">License scheme</a>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Legal code</a><br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This License allows anyone to</span>:<br>Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.<br>Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Under the following terms</span><br>Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.<br>No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.<br><br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Notices</span><br>Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.<br>No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.</p> Index | Colophon | Editorial Giuseppe De Giovanni Cesare Sposito Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 3 7 10.19229/2464-9309/702020 Drawings in the world. On multiscalarity and scales outside the representation <p>The article relates the concept of architectural scale with the philosophical and political implications of the world representation action implicit in every scalar operation. Drawing from a certain philosophical tradition about representation, it follows that the scalar attribution can be interpreted as an attempt to perform a form of control over the represented through the drawing, with the purpose to legitimize the author and the scientificity of the architectural discipline in theories and Schools. However, this paradigm, which made the Italian post-war architecture so successful, is put in crisis by the nature of the problems requiring design and projection. From these considerations, a conceptualization of multiscalarity is proposed, focusing on the project's agency in the world, rather than from an introjection of the latter into the designer intentions.</p> Giovanni Durbiano Tommaso Listo Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 8 15 10.19229/2464-9309/712020 The many dimensions of the digital model <p>In the construction of a model, architectural drawing is not so much ‘representative drawing’ as ‘constructive drawing’. Scale and measure are fundamental criteria for interpreting and representing the parts of a unicum linked together in a hierarchical or interconnected relationship. This gives rise to the entire asset of a project, where various disciplines, or spheres of knowledge, integrate to generate models that make it possible to simulate its construction and predict its impact. For digital design, the computer screen is like a window opening onto the model’s virtual space that allows us to observe and interact with it while moving and modifying it. Virtual reality, immersive and mixed, creates new dimensions that animate the model, and from these dimensions, the complexity of the multiscalar project unfolds as the result of multidimensional thinking, for a creative, multidirectional, anti-dogmatic model.</p> Francesca Fatta Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 16 25 10.19229/2464-9309/722020 Macro phenomena vs micro responses. Multiscale approaches in the dynamic relationship between envelope and context <p>The current scenario, crossed by contrasting flows where emergencies and development trends often coexist and increase gaps, highlights the need to ‘move’ from the change phase to the phase of change. On many fronts, it is evident that this need is determining an acceleration towards a transformation that has concrete Renaissance characteristics. An example is the use of the ‘multiscalar vision’ in research as a useful criterion for understanding phenomena, both material and immaterial. The contribution addresses the relationships between buildings and their contexts, assuming at the macro scale the stresses that phenomena, such as climate, ‘impose’ on the envelopes and, at the micro scale, the new qualitative and performance responses of envelope systems – innovative and not – that today characterize the panorama of contemporary architecture.</p> Maria Teresa Lucarelli Martino Milardi Mariateresa Mandaglio Caterina Claudia Musarella Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 26 33 10.19229/2464-9309/732020 From mega to nano, a round trip. The process/project of protection, preservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage <p>The terms ‘mega’ and ‘nano’ proposed by Agathón issue number 7 are linked, primarily, to the scientific field and in particular to metrology, but are often found also in common, figurative or metaphorical language. However, they seem in any way linked to the complex world of Cultural Heritage and their protection, conservation, preservation, restoration, enhancement and management. Actually, this is not the case. In many cases these terms are directly relevant to that field and, in particular, to the Built Cultural Heritage, that is architecture at different scales. In other cases, they can still be used in a metaphorical or evocative sense, to express concepts relevant to this area of thought, study and action.</p> Stefano Francesco Musso Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 34 43 10.19229/2464-9309/742020 The territory into architecture. Big scale and agriculture in Italian Architecture, 1966-1978 <p>An unprecedented inter-scalarity links Italian Architecture to the notion of territory between 1966 and 1978. Two main strands are shown as theoretical foundations of some contemporary orientations of the discipline. The first refers to Vittorio Gregotti and Aldo Rossi, the second to the Radical Avant-garde. The teaching of the territory concerning the modalities of relationship between formal facts and the autonomous role of architecture in the historical city, seen in parallel with the fictional projects of the Radical Architecture and the role that agriculture plays there, shows that trans-scalarity is here inseparable from trans-disciplinarity. Those works, distilling the formal gesture to reactivate large-scale relationships in a diachronic time, by opposing architecture to the artificiality of the consumerist city on its way to conquest every land, using the collage in a poetics for fragments, and composing projects as scenarios, still echo in our season.</p> Zeila Tesoriere Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 44 53 10.19229/2464-9309/752020 CERN. Multiscalar Paradigm <p>The multiscalar issue is interpreted here as an essential principle of the mechanics of the project. Each scale, even if taken individually, must be considered within a reference system that is coherent not only based on a series of quantitative and conventional starting principles but even more than a general logic composed of the totality of the scales involved. The contribution – focused on the structures of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Meyrin – aims to investigate the issue of ‘scales’ by looking at the multiscalar project as a creator of a ‘difficult unit’, composed through a ‘structure’ «[… ] as to how things become intelligible» (Forty, 2012, p. 283). CERN, an extraordinary inescapable machine, represents a paradigmatic case on the issue of the multiscalar project.</p> Luigi Mandraccio Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 54 63 10.19229/2464-9309/762020 The urban security project <p>This essay aims to critically re-read the birth and evolution of design methodologies aimed at improving safety conditions and quality of life in cities. In particular, referring to the American cultural context and the birth of the CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) – that first experienced the environmental approach to urban safety – three recent French experiences are analyzed from the urban scale to that of the building artefact and the Italian reality takes stock, also in the light of the recent Legislative Decree of 2017 and the 2010 UNI Standard that punctually outlines an articulated design approach, in fact inapplicable.</p> Roberto Bolici Matteo Gambaro Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 64 71 10.19229/2464-9309/772020 Westminster, city for all. A multi-scalar approach for a healthy community <p>In the last few years, the interest in the relationship between urban planning and the topic of citizens’ health has spread supported by the action of the World Health Organization which has focused attention on the ‘determinants’ of health, understood as socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, as well as life and work. Starting from the assumption that urban planning plays a decisive role in promoting healthy lifestyles, this contribution examines the case of the City of Westminster, to highlight the integration of the health topic in urban planning tools. To be effective, policies for improving health and wellbeing require a multi-scalar approach, among strategies, including sectorial ones, plans and projects, and a multidisciplinary interaction between the actors, to allow the definition of shared actions of development.</p> Piera Pellegrino Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 72 81 10.19229/2464-9309/782020 Designing intercultural space. A multi-scalar approach in the Albergheria neighbourhood in Palermo <p>Migration has always been a major driver of urban transformation stimulating opportunities and challenges for cities and encouraging architectural and urban designers for taking a proactive and dynamic role in responding to the crisis. Enhancing these changes, and designing intercultural spaces for local communities, is a complex and urgent spatial challenge, that should be addressed by a multi-scalar approach aiming to integrate urban, architectural and public spaces. This paper illustrates a research-action resulting from a collective work developed on key urban spaces of the Albergheria neighbourhood of Palermo, where a design-led research based on a multi-scalar regeneration approach (urban, architectural and public space) can reframe the role of architecture and spatial practices as agents of social, intercultural inclusion and spatial reactivation at different scales.</p> Federico Wulff Barreiro Renzo Lecardane Paola La Scala Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 82 91 10.19229/2464-9309/792020 Simulacra of emptiness. The model as habitable space <p>This contribution is part of a study dedicated to the architectural model as a tool able to reveal the formal generative process of the project. This text develops the topic of the relationship between space and form, further analysing the relationship between the scale of the model and the meaning it takes on in a three-dimensional representation of hollow space. In particular, the examination stems from the hypothesis that the more research is oriented towards the study of the relationship between emptiness and the human figure, the more the scale of the model chosen to experiment with spatial qualities approaches real life, a 1:1 scale, and employs an interdisciplinary approach to identify possible points of contact between research conducted in architecture, sculpture and photography.</p> Elena Mucelli Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 92 101 10.19229/2464-9309/7102020 Megaformalism of living. Genealogy and prerogatives of a potential morpho-technotype <p>The research for new forms of shared housing, able to face the multiple environmental and social criticalities of the planet, is driving to rethink the conventional ways of living together. In this context, the Megaform appears as a contingent intervention device that, as an alternative to other solutions, such as the individual houses, the cluster housing, and the tall buildings, can integrate and/or replace the traditional city layout. The contribution traces the genealogy and prerogatives of this unusual morphotype, not attributable to any conventional typological classification, assuming its rediscovery and re-proposition also in an empirical key, starting from the indispensable rethinking of the principles of our living with others, in the belief that to survive in the cities that we have irreversibly transformed, we must learn to think in a new way.</p> Oscar Eugenio Bellini Marianna Arcieri Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 102 113 10.19229/2464-9309/7112020 Individual and collective scale in the complexity of school space. The Portuguese experience <p>The conception of the contemporary scholar space requires a whole set of aspects that confront opposite scales, by increasing the complexity of achieving systemic, balanced and, most important, clear results. To both fulfil the most recent pedagogical ideals, the functional needs, the social aspirations, and the incorporation of the (new) legal demands, bearing in mind the public investment restraining policy, it becomes a challenge even bigger, from which the political responsibility cannot stand apart. So, through the intervention developed by Parque Escolar on the grounds of rehabilitation of the scholar buildings in Portugal, it’s important to comprehend the dialogue between different scales from distinct environments (programmatic, educational, social and infrastructural), defending this operation as a paradigmatic response to the multi-scale complexity.</p> André Santos Anna Kazimirko Leonardo Barros Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 114 123 10.19229/2464-9309/7122020 Smart materials for NZEB buildings. Adaptive technological solutions for sustainable projects <p>The paper shows some of the results of the European research COST Action TU 1403 Adaptive Envelope, whose aim is to map technological innovation at an international level, linked to design and creation of adaptive façades systems, by analysing the subsystems that from the micro to the macro scale allow to reach and exceed the energy-environmental targets foreseen by the current national and international regulations. Starting by analysing the state of the art, the paper will focus in particular on the subject of smart materials that can be used to create vertical closure systems with advanced screens, capable of improving indoor comfort and energy efficiency of new and existing buildings. Through the analysis of their material, technological and functional characteristics, will be defined the qualitative and performance parameters that influence their use and function on a full-scale.</p> Rosa Romano Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 124 131 10.19229/2464-9309/7132020 The sleeping giant. Project for the former Military Hospital in Naples <p>The paper aims to describe a project developed under the scientific cooperation agreement between the Department for the Urban Planning and Territorial Management (UNESCO Site of the Municipality of Naples) and DiARC (Department of Architecture) of the ‘Federico II’ University of Naples. The project concerns a huge Convent Complex with an open courtyard typology, placed on the slope of the Sant’Elmo hill in Naples that is, today, abandoned. The aim is of re-introducing the Complex in the living dynamic of the city, through a careful work not only on the artefact in itself but also on its relationship with the city and landscape. Moreover, the project is the occasion to affirm a convinced choice of field about the theme of the intervention on the heritage, in favour of the culture of project and against an obstinate, as myopic, logic of conservation.</p> Federica Visconti Renato Capozzi Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 132 143 10.19229/2464-9309/7142020 Object-field. The multi-resolution study of topological optimization <p>Since the integration of digital tools into architectural design, we have observed a certain reassessment of the notion of ‘structure’, taking us far from known and usually studied schemes. Following the advancement in simulation and topological optimization, we will expose the key projects, study their level of performance, but also underline a common limit: their formal logic defined by this process. We believe that a solution to this limit lies in a change of scale in the design method, with multi-resolution systems, where each grain of matter can adapt to the structural information present at the macro scale. Thus, we propose a design research project exploring this game of scale through four object-fields, objects which are formally autonomous, but nevertheless express their internal structural field with microscopic translation of topological optimization.</p> Samuel Bernier-Lavigne Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 144 153 10.19229/2464-9309/7152020 Design and complexity. A multiscale approach for updating the project’s control tools <p>In the current situation, it is necessary to propose an integrated, multiscale and multidisciplinary approach to manage the complexity of the architectural project, identifying decision support tools to perform multicriteria assessments between technical performance and different environmental criteria. This contribution presents the results of research activities undertaken in the framework of a PRRIITT within the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara, with the collaboration of the Larco Laboratory – High Technology Network of the Emilia Romagna Region and various companies, for the development of a method able to evaluate in a provisional way and during the design phase the different environmental quality components generated by the technological system, overcoming today simplification intrinsic in current assessment and certification models.</p> Fabio Conato Valentina Frighi Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 154 163 10.19229/2464-9309/7162020 Design and sensory quality. Materials and performance for communication in museum spaces <p>Design can provide the means to guide perceptive processes, by trying to act on the environment’s ability to provide intelligible and meaningful information. Making a space communicative by enhancing its usability entails anticipating perceptive processes and pursuing better quality for human-environment interaction. A possible solution could be using sensory materials able to provide ‘tangible’ features and new functions, thanks to technologies acting in a controlled way on the micro and nano-levels. In this regard, the results of two studies funded by Sapienza University of Rome are presented; they relate to the structuring of a database of materials that can act at the information level on the shared spaces of large Museum Hubs, and its experimentation for the Roman museums’ network Musei in Comune, supported by the Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali of Rome.</p> Teresa Villani Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 164 173 10.19229/2464-9309/7172020 Within the matter. Determining the performance of innovative bioplastic materials with SEM analysis <p>Reconsidering the role of the matter in the design process, with all its morphological ecosystemic and functional quality, is the starting point for the experimentation on innovative bioplastics conducted in industrial partnership by ZEBtwdZEEB Research Group of ‘L. Vanvitelli’ University of Campania with Service Biotech Srl. The use of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allowed evaluating the biological evolutionary dynamics at micro-level that are at the base of the experimentation, fully in line with the approach of the regenerative Design and the Ecotechnological Design.</p> Antonella Violano Salvatore Del Prete Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 174 179 10.19229/2464-9309/7182020 A systemic approach and multiscale data management. A ‘refrigerator’ case study <p>Many digital technologies, such as the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, could radically change the way of conceiving a design process, especially when they are used to retrieve essential information to define a problem, identify the requirements and support design decisions, all of which are typical of the pre-design phase. In this essay, we reflect on the complexity of designing, on the need for a systemic approach based on participatory methods and on the use of prototypes as tools to unlock the potential, albeit still largely untapped, use of data for design purposes. An experiment has been conducted on a refrigerator and conclusions have been drawn on future visions, methodological aspects in the field of systemic design and the relationship between data and sustainability.</p> Paolo Marco Tamborrini Eleonora Fiore Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 180 189 10.19229/2464-9309/7192020 Weighted Dynamic Networks. Digital multiscale and time responsive design techniques <p>In a complex structured city, where the interactions between parts intensify, the number of decision-makers and cultural scenarios overlap, interconnect (and sometimes collide), where local and global as well as physical and virtual dimensions coexist, it is necessary to identify a set of design tools which could adapt to different scales of the intervention of the modern city. The essay proposes a multiscalar and time-sensitive Weighted Networks Design methodology. Originally developed by the author as director of the Research Lab Non-Linear Solutions Unit at Columbia University, the WDN methodology has been implemented by the author herself in a series of multiscale case studies in the professional and academic environment along over the last 20 years.</p> Caterina Tiazzoldi Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 190 201 10.19229/2464-9309/7202020 Environmental design multisensory experience. Integrated space for simulation activities <p>The EDME Laboratory, established within the Polytechnic of Milano, is the first result of a path of multidisciplinary integration, which synthesizes multiscalar relationships, outlining the identity of an instrument of investigation, interpretation and representation of experiential scenarios. The generated model integrates with a physical space innovative ICT technology and materials of the latest generation, to carry out research involving simulations of complex activities and interactions, and predictions on the perceptual and digital control aspects of the environments where such activities are carried out. This contribution, through two research projects, will highlight how qualified research can lead to the creation of methodologies and the implementation of innovative applications; the achievable results meet the needs for systems able to detect and simulate perceptual aspects and for systems of environmental interaction.</p> Stefania Palmieri Mario Bisson Alessandro Ianniello Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 202 209 10.19229/2464-9309/7212020 Nanotechnology, additive manufacturing and genius loci. A case of jewellery design <p>The presented research aims to spread the knowledge of regional excellence through the design of a series of jewels that highlight its Made in Umbria origin, enhancing in an unprecedented way the tangible and intangible riches of the territory. The work shows the possibilities of innovation that arise from the overall strategy of a Territorial Design project by working, on the one hand, on the definition of the peculiarities of the natural and man-made environment, in terms of creativity and aesthetic expression, on the other hand, on the use of nanotechnology to facilitate a conscious use of resources (local waste materials and biopolymers) in combination with the possibilities offered by additive manufacturing.</p> Debora Puglia Benedetta Terenzi Copyright (c) 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 7 210 219 10.19229/2464-9309/7222020