Machine Learning and Safe and Inclusive Architecture for Fragile Users


  • Antonio Magarò Roma Tre University
  • Adolfo F. L. Baratta Roma Tre University



artificial intelligence, machine learning, augmented reality, fragile users, architecture for an ageing society


The contribution presents the first results of a research conducted in the Department of Architecture, Roma Tre University, aimed at testing Machine Learning algorithms for train Neural Networks in learning data from BIM, with the purpose of generating Augmented Reality contents. The objective is to improve the living space's fruition by fragile users. Machine Learning algorithms, in computer-aided design, constitute an innovation in production, as well as an innovation in product, meaning architectural spaces as such. After describing the current research lines, this paper proposes a shared glossary about the terms borrowed from other investigation fields. Finally, it describes the applications in Augmented Reality experimented in the research and the theoretical mechanisms of interaction between these and the Machine Learning algorithms.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Metrics Graph

Author Biographies

Antonio Magarò, Roma Tre University

Architect and PhD Student, since 2016 he has been carrying out integrative teaching assignments in the Architecture Technology courses. His research ranges from urban regeneration through the adaptive envelopes to the new technologies for fragile users. He is the author of publications about innovative materials and about the mitigation of housing problems in marginal urban areas of the world.

Adolfo F. L. Baratta, Roma Tre University

Architect and PhD, since 2014 he is an Associate Professor in Architectural Technology at the Department of Architecture. Professor at University of Florence (2002-2012), Sapienza University of Rome (2009-2010) he was Visiting Professor at Universidad de Boyacà in Sogamoso, Colombia (2017) and in the HTWG of Konstanz, Deutschland (2017). He is the author of over 200 publications.


AAL Programme (2018), AAL programme – Funding for active and assisted living. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 24 March 2019].

Akçayır, M. and Akçayır, G. (2017), “Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of literature”, in Educational Research Review, vol. 20, pp. 1-20.

Alankus, G., Lazar, A., May, M. and Kelleher, C. (2010), “Towards customizable games for stroke rehabilitation”, in Chi, X. (ed.), Proceedings of the 28th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, pp. 2113-2122.

Baltes, P. B. and Smith, J. (2003), “New frontiers in the future of aging: from successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age”, in Gerontology, vol. 49, pp. 123-135.

Bavazzano, A. (2017), “Che cosa significa essere fragili”, in Toscana Medica, vol. 4, pp. 16-18.

Bergman, H. (2007), “Frailty: an emerging research and clinical paradigm–issues and controversies”, in Journals of Gerontology – Series A: Biological and Medical Sciences, vol. 62, pp. 731-737.

Cabrera-Umpierrez, M. F., Ramirez, C. M., Sevillano, A., Arredondo, M. T. and De Smedt, A. (2006), “Medical Educational e-Platform through Virtual Reality technologies”, in Sandoval, F. (ed.), Proceedings of IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, IEEE, Malaga, pp. 453-456.

Ciulla, G., D’Amico, A., Lo Brano, V. and Traverso, M. (2019), “Application of optimized artificial intelligence algorithm to evaluate the heating energy demand of non-residential buildings at European level”, in Energy, vol. 176, pp. 380-391. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 24 March 2019].

Cubeddu, I. (ed.) (1996), Rene Descartes – Discorso sul metodo, Editori Riuniti, Roma.

De Toni, A., Giacomelli, F. and Ivis, S. (2010), Il mondo invisibile dei pazienti fragili, UTET Università, Torino.

Forman, D. E., Berman, A. D., McBabe, C. H., Baim, D. S. and Wei, J. Y. (1992), “PTCA in the elderly, the young-old versus the old-old, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 40, pp. 19-22.

Formica, G. and Magarò, A. (2018), “Abitazioni per anziani: nuove tecnologie per la fruizione dello spazio domestico”, in Baratta, A. et alii (eds), Abitazioni sicure e inclusive per anziani, Anteferma, Venezia, pp. 347-356.

Furlan, E. (2014), Il paziente fragile – Il ruolo delle strutture intermedie nel territorio veneto, Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia, Dipartimento di Filosofia e Beni Culturali, Venezia.

Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y. and Courville, A. (2016), Deep Learning, The MIT Press, London.

Hogan, D. B. (2003), “Steering Committee, Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging – Models, definitions, and criteria of frailty”, in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 15, pp. 1-29.

ISTAT (2015), Inclusione sociale delle persone con limitazioni funzionali, disabilità o cronicità gravi. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2019].

Karunananthan, S. (2009), “A multidisciplinary systematic literature review on frailty: overview of the methodology used by the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging. B”, in BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 9, pp. 128-135.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., Shmotkin, D., Blumstein, Z., Eval, N. and Hazan, H. (2013), “The old, old-old, and the oldest old: continuation or distinct categories? An examination of the relationship between age and changes in health, function, and wellbeing”, in International Journal of Human Aging Development, vol. 77, pp. 37-57.

Luger, G. F. (2005), Artificial Intelligence – Structures and strategies for complex problem solving, Addison-Wesley, Boston.

McCulloch, W. S. and Pitts, W. H. (1943), “A logical calculus of ideas immanent in nervous activity”, in Bulletin of mathematical biophysics, vol. 5, pp. 115-133.

Mitchel, T. M. (1997), Machine Learning, McGraw Hill, New York.

Pittarello, F. and De Faveri, A. (2006), “Improving access of elderly people to real environments: a semantic based approach”, in Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, ACM, New York, pp. 364-368.

Ruggero, C., Cerubini, A. and Senin, U. (2007), “Alla scoperta delle origini dell’anziano fragile”, in Giornale di Gerontologia, vol. 4, pp. 183-190.

Samuel, A. L. (1959), “Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers”, in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 44, pp. 206-226.

United Nations (2017), World Populatin Ageing. Report. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2019].

Università Cattolica (2017), La condizione delle persone con disabilità in Italia. [Online] available at: [Accessed 23 March 2019].

WHO – World Health Organization (2011), World report on disability. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2019].

World Bank (2018), Disability inclusion. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2019].

RAdARt application developed within the Department of Architecture of the Roma Tre University. agathón




How to Cite

Magarò, A. and Baratta, A. F. L. (2019) “Machine Learning and Safe and Inclusive Architecture for Fragile Users”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 5(online), pp. 109–116. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/5122019.



Architecture | Research & Experimentation