Adapting humanitarian emergency architecture for street children outreach campaigns

  • Ruba Azzam Cairo University
  • Ahmed AbdelGhaffar Cairo University
  • Karim Kesseiba Cairo University
  • Mennat-Allah El-Husseiny Cairo University
Keywords: street children, children-rehabilitation centres, street outreach campaigns, humanitarian aid, architecture for humanitarian emergencies


The architectural research offers a few solutions for the outreach campaign addressed to the street children phenomenon, although it is crucial. In a lot of cases, the solutions adopted can benefit from the architectural applications used for humanitarian emergencies. This contribution investigates the possible guidelines for the design of mobile applications to be used in outreach campaigns addressed to street children, through a review of the International literature, an analysis of the Egyptian context and a qualitative study of street children outreach structures and those ones for humanitarian emergency.

Author Biographies

Ruba Azzam, Cairo University

Architect and MSc, she is an Assistant Lecturer at the Department of Architecture and Engineering Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, and is a LEED Green Associate.

Ahmed AbdelGhaffar, Cairo University

Architect and PhD, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering.

Karim Kesseiba, Cairo University

Architect and PhD, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering. Member of the Teaching Committee for Architectural Design Studios for Graduate and Undergraduate Programs, he carried out design and urban design programs for Kesseiba Consultants in Housing and Recreational Projects in Egypt and Gulf Countries.

Mennat-Allah El-Husseiny, Cairo University

Architect and PhD, she is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering. She is a Member of the Teaching Committee for the Double Master Program ‘Revitalization of Historic City District’, BTU-Cottbus-Cairo.


AbdelRasheed, M. (2004), The Humane Aspects in The Design of Social Care Facilities for Juvenile Pre-Delinquency, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (in Arabic).

AFD (Agence Française de Développement) and Samusocial International (2012), Street Children – From individual care to the introduction of social policies, Savoirs Communs n. 12. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 September 2019].

Ammar, N. H. (2009), “The Relationship Between Street Children and The Justice System in Egypt”, in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, vol. 53, n. 5, pp. 556-573. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 September 2019].

Azzam, R. (2019), Architectural contributions to solutions for the street children phenomenon: Investigating possibilities of adapting architecture for humanitarian emergencies, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Bashawri, A., Garrity, S. and Moodley, K. (2014), “An Overview of the Design of Disaster Relief Shelters”, in Procedia Economics and Finance, vol. 18, pp. 924-931. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 September 2019].

Bibars, I. (1998), “Street children in Egypt: from the home to the street to inappropriate corrective institutions”, in Environment and Urbanization, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 201-216. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 18 December 2018].

Bakowski, J. (2016), “A mobile hospital: its advantages and functional limitations”, in International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, vol. 6, n. 4, pp. 746-754. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 February 2019].

Brès, P. (1986), Public Health Action in Emergencies Caused by Epidemics – A practical guide, World Health Organization, Geneva. [Online] Available at:;jsessionid =CA2E6A36EA36F618A02D7898F703EBCF?sequence=1 [Accessed 27 November 2018].

Brink, B. (1997), Guidelines for The Design of Centers for Street Children, UNESCO, Paris.

Corsellis, T. and Vitale, A. (2005), Transitional settlement – Displaced populations, Oxfam GB, Oxford. [Online] Available at: %20Displaced%20Populations_%20OXFAM%20and%20Shelter%20Centre.pdf [Accessed 16 September 2019].

Davis, K. and Iltus, S. (2011), A Practical Guide for Developing Child Friendly Spaces, UNICEF. [Online] Available at: Friendly_Spaces_-_UNICEF_(2).pdf [Accessed 28 July 2018].

de Benitez, S. T. (2011), Street Children – A Mapping & Gapping Review of the Literature 2000 to 2010, Consortium for Street Children. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 July 2019].

de Benitez, S. T. (2003), “Reactive, Protective and Rights-Based Approaches in Work with Homeless Street Youth”, in Children, Youth and Environments, vol. 13, n. 1, pp. 134-149. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 August 2019].

Dorent, N. (2011), “Transitory Cities: Emergency architecture and the challenge of climate change”, in Development, vol. 54, issue 3, pp. 345-351. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 December 2018].

Dubin, L. (2005), Field Guidelines for Best Practices in Shelter Response – Site Planning, Shelter Design and Construction Management, International Rescue Committee (IRC). [Online] Available at: [Accessed 3 December 2018].

Dybicz, P. (2005), “Interventions for street children: An analysis of current best practices”, in International Social Work, vol. 48, issue 6, pp. 763-771. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 9 June 2019].

Egyptian Ministry of Justice (2008), Egyptian Child Law no.12 for 1996, amended by Law no. 126 for 2008, Egypt. [Online] Available at: _eng.pdf [Accessed 5 November 2019].

Egyptian Ministry of Social Solidarity (2017), Homeless children protection program Newsletter, Hardcopy Booklet in Arabic.

Ennew, J. and Swart-Kruger, J. (2013), “Introduction: Homes, Places and Spaces in the Construction of Street Children and Street Youth”, in Children, Youth and Environments, vol. 13, n. 1, pp. 81-104. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 October 2019].

Hoban, R. (2018), Mobile Hospital Headed to Florence-affected areas to provide support. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 November 2019].

IFRC – International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2017), Child Friendly Spaces in emergencies – Lessons Learned Review, Geneva. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 4 January 2019].

Jensen, E. (1996), “Introduction and Overview: Typology and Causes of Emergency Settlement”, in Schramm, D. and Thompson, P. (eds), New Approaches to New Realities, First international emergency settlement conference, University of Wisconsin – Disaster Management Center, Department of Engineering Professional Development, Madison, pp. 2-15. [Online] Available at: approaches%20to%20new%20realities.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [Accessed 20 September 2019].

Kennedy, J., Ashmore, J., Babister, E. and Kelman, I. (2008), “The Meaning of ‘Build Back Better’: Evidence from Post-Tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka”, in Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 24-36. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 October 2018].

Li, X. (2003), Emergency shelter study and shelter design, MSc Thesis, Faculty of the School of Architecture, University of Southern California, California (USA). [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2019].

Lobos, J. (2013), Architecture for humanitarian emergencies 02, KADK Denmark, Copenhagen. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2019].

Lorch, D. (2017), In Turkey – Mobile child-friendly spaces bridge gaps between Syrian and Turkish children. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2019].

McLaughlin, E. and Papadopoulo, A. (2008), “An introduction to portable field hospitals”, in Rural Remote Health, vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 1-12. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 28 November 2018].

Moore, G. T. (1986), “Effects of spatial definition of behavior settings on children’s behavior: A quasi-experimental field study”, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 6, pp. 205-231. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2019].

Morby, A. (2017), IKEA flat-pack refugee shelter wins design of the year 2016. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 December 2018].

Nyamai, S. and Waiganjo, M. (2014), “Factors Influencing Performance of Children Homes and Rehabilitation Centers within Nakuru Municipality and its Environs, Kenya”, in International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 2, n. 6, pp. 362-377. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 6 August 2019].

Panter-Brick, C. (2002), “Street Children, Human Rights, and Public Health: A Critique and Future Directions”, in Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 31, pp. 147-171. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 September 2019].

Shepley, M. and Pasha, S. (2013), Design research and behavioral health facilities, The Center of Health Design, Concord (CA). [Online] Available at: health_1013-_final_0.pdf [Accessed 11 March 2019].

Volpi, E. (2002), Street Children – Promising Practices and Approaches, World Bank Institute, Washington. [Online] Available at: WBI0Street0children.pdf [Accessed 16 September 2019].

WFP, UNICEF and ODCCP (2001), Rapid Situation Assessment Report on the situation of street children in Cairo and Alexandria, including the children’s drug abuse and health/nutritional status, UNICEF, Cairo (Egypt). [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 March 2019].

Young, L. (2003), “The ‘Place’ of Street Children in Kampala, Uganda: Marginalization, Resistance, and Acceptance in the Urban Environment”, in Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 21, issue 5, pp. 607-627. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 June 2019].

Design of HVS midi bus-street-outreach-mobile units (credit: Azzam based on field work with HVS foundation, 2019). AGATHÒN 06 | 2019
How to Cite
Azzam, R., AbdelGhaffar, A., Kesseiba, K. and El-Husseiny, M.-A. (2019) “Adapting humanitarian emergency architecture for street children outreach campaigns”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 6(online), pp. 200-209. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/6192019.
Architecture | Research & Experimentation
Share |